Feline restriction factors to lentiviral replication

Dietrich, Isabelle (2013) Feline restriction factors to lentiviral replication. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

Strong adaptive evolutionary forces shape the interactions between pathogens and their hosts and typically lead to a stable co-existence. In this process of co-evolution, mammals have developed restriction factors that limit retrovirus infectivity, replication or assembly and narrow the spectrum of potential host species. These restriction factors are either constitutively expressed, such as APOBEC3 proteins, cytidine deaminases that interfere with reverse transcription, or form part of the type I interferon-induced innate immunity, such as TRIM5, a member of the tripartite motif protein family that induces degradation of retroviral capsid, blocks reverse transcription, or tetherin (BST-2, CD317), which inhibits release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. Conversely, viruses have evolved antagonists of restriction factors or proteins that limit IFN-induced gene expression, thus evading immune surveillance. The interaction between host and viral components is delicately balanced and has a significant impact on disease outcome. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is a recent introduction into domestic cats and causes an immunodeficiency syndrome analogous to human AIDS. Interestingly, non-domestic cats such as lion or pumas have co-existed with lentiviruses for prolonged periods of time and FIV infections are largely benign. Although plasma viral and proviral loads are high in both domestic and non-domestic cats, in vitro studies have shown that FIV infection of non-domestic cat T lymphocytes is significantly less efficient than that of domestic cat T cells. Thus, this thesis tests the hypothesis that the differential disease outcome of FIV infections in felids is caused by differences in lentiviral restriction factor activities or their sensitivities to FIV restriction factor antagonists. Data presented in this study show for the first time that feline APOBEC3 proteins are expressed in tissues and cell types relevant for FIV infection. The APOBEC3 proteins A3H and A3CH exhibited a high antiviral activity against FIV lacking the APOBEC3 antagonist Vif in single-cycle replication assays, with no difference in activity being detected between domestic and non-domestic cat proteins. However, domestic cat A3CH was significantly more sensitive to antagonism by FIV Vif than lion or puma A3CH, which would allow efficient viral replication in domestic cat T lymphocytes and subsequently lead to T cell loss and immunodeficiency. Furthermore, this thesis provides evidence that felid tetherins can prevent FIV particle release from producer cells in single-cycle replication assays; however, stable expression of domestic and non-domestic cat tetherins in feline cell lines did not abrogate FIV replication. Indeed, syncytium formation indicative of viral cell-to-cell spread was significantly enhanced in type I interferon-treated feline cells infected with CD134-independent strains of FIV which often arise in chronic (late) stages of FIV infections in vivo. Finally, this work reports the generation of a synthetic domestic cat TRIM5α-cyclophilin A fusion protein which was highly efficient at preventing FIV pseudotype and productive infection. This novel feline restriction factor represents a potent antiviral defence agent with very low potential for toxicity and could in future be used in gene therapy approaches to treat FIV-infected cats.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Additional Information: Supported by funding from the Wellcome Trust.
Keywords: Feline immunodeficiency virus, restriction factor, innate immunity
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
S Agriculture > SF Animal culture > SF600 Veterinary Medicine
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation > Centre for Virus Research
Funder's Name: UNSPECIFIED
Supervisor's Name: Willett, Prof. Brian J.
Date of Award: 2013
Depositing User: Dr. Isabelle Dietrich
Unique ID: glathesis:2013-4066
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 13 Mar 2013 10:53
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2016 14:32
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/4066

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