Design and modelling of clock and data recovery
integrated circuit in 130 nm CMOS technology
for 10 Gb/s serial data communications.
PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
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This thesis describes the design and implementation of a fully monolithic 10 Gb/s phase and frequency-locked loop based clock and data recovery (PFLL-CDR) integrated circuit, as well as the Verilog-A modeling of an asynchronous serial link based chip to chip communication system incorporating the proposed concept. The proposed design was implemented and fabricated using the 130 nm CMOS technology offered by UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation). Different PLL-based CDR circuits topologies were investigated in terms of architecture and speed. Based on the investigation, we proposed a new concept of quarter-rate (i.e. the clocking speed in the circuit is 2.5 GHz for 10 Gb/s data rate) and dual-loop topology which consists of phase-locked and frequency-locked loop. The frequency-locked loop (FLL) operates independently from the phase-locked loop (PLL), and has a highly-desired feature that once the proper frequency has been acquired, the FLL is automatically disabled and the PLL will take over to adjust the clock edges approximately in the middle of the incoming data bits for proper sampling. Another important feature of the proposed quarter-rate concept is the inherent 1-to-4 demultiplexing of the input serial data stream. A new quarter-rate phase detector based on the non-linear early-late phase detector concept has been used to achieve the multi-Giga bit/s speed and to eliminate the need of the front-end data pre-processing (edge detecting) units usually associated with the conventional CDR circuits. An eight-stage differential ring oscillator running at 2.5 GHz frequency center was used for the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) to generate low-jitter multi-phase clock signals. The transistor level simulation results demonstrated excellent performances in term of locking speed and power consumption. In order to verify the accuracy of the proposed quarter-rate concept, a clockless asynchronous serial link incorporating the proposed concept and communicating two chips at 10 Gb/s has been modelled at gate level using the Verilog-A language and time-domain simulated.
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