Turkey red dyeing in late-19th century Glasgow: Interpreting the historical process through re-creation and chemical analysis for heritage research and conservation

Wertz, Julie Hodges (2017) Turkey red dyeing in late-19th century Glasgow: Interpreting the historical process through re-creation and chemical analysis for heritage research and conservation. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

The dyed cotton textiles called Turkey red are a significant part of Scotland’s cultural heritage and the legacy of its textile manufacturing industry, and were known for their exceptional colour and fastness to light and wash fading. This thesis is a multi-disciplinary investigation of the chemistry of these unique textiles in the context of 19th c. Scotland using historical material re-creations and modern analytical chemistry, situating the dyeing process in a historical context. This research is a significant contribution toward the continued preservation of historical Turkey red textiles. Through a detailed, chemistry-focused examination of Turkey red methods published in English and French between 1785-1911, the key ingredients and steps for the process from a chemical perspective are identified (Chapter 1). The significance, chemistry, and previous research on the role of the oil (Chapter 2) and dye sources used (Chapter 3) are discussed to form the basis of the material re-creations and analysis. The oil is fundamental to and characteristic of the process, which is also noteworthy for being the first to replace a natural dye source (madder or garancine) with a coal-tar derived analogue (synthetic alizarin). Re-creations of dyed Turkey red, Turkey red oil, oiled calico, and synthetic alizarin provide experiential data and reference materials to test analyses prior to application on historical objects (Chapter 4). The analysis of Turkey red oils by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) (Chapter 5) provides information used to characterise, for the first time, how the oil and cotton fibres bond to form the basis of the Turkey red complex. This is studied using conservation-based diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and solid-state NMR (ssNMR) on replica and 19th c. pieces of Turkey red (Chapter 6). Dyes analysis of these samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA) identifies chromatographic profiles of textiles dyed with natural or synthetic dye based on synthetic chemical markers. The presence of pigments on printed Turkey red is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) (Chapter 7).

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Turkey red, dyes, dyeing, madder, synthetic alizarin, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, textiles, heritage conservation science, Scotland, Vale of Leven, United Turkey Red, UHPLC-PDA, FTIR-ATR, diffuse FTIR, NMR, solid-state NMR, SEM-EDX.
Subjects: D History General and Old World > DA Great Britain
N Fine Arts > NX Arts in general
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Colleges/Schools: College of Arts > School of Culture and Creative Arts > History of Art
Funder's Name: UNSPECIFIED
Supervisor's Name: Quye, Dr. Anita and France, Dr. David
Date of Award: 2017
Embargo Date: 15 May 2020
Depositing User: Dr Julie H Wertz
Unique ID: glathesis:2017-8183
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2017 13:24
Last Modified: 25 Jul 2017 09:49
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/8183
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