Tropism of bluetongue virus in Culicoides midges

Muntzer, Alice Adair (2017) Tropism of bluetongue virus in Culicoides midges. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

Due to Embargo and/or Third Party Copyright restrictions, this thesis is not available in this service.
Printed Thesis Information: https://eleanor.lib.gla.ac.uk/record=b3290229

Abstract

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) cause diseases of significant consequence to human and animal health. The aspect of the lifecycle that distinguishes an arbovirus from another viral group, is the requirement for replication in an arthropod vector and vertebrate host. Culicoides midges (order: Diptera; family: Ceratopogonidae) transmit several arboviral diseases of economic importance including bluetongue virus (BTV), a double-stranded RNA virus within the genus Orbivirus (family: Reoviridae).

The ability of an arbovirus, such as BTV, to replicate, disseminate and be transmitted to a susceptible host is determined by the interaction between extrinsic factors, such as the titre of ingested virus, and intrinsic factors such as the particular viral and vector genotype. This process is poorly understood. Here, data are presented to address this, describing BTV infection and replication in a model species, Culicoides sonorensis.

The percentages of infected cells were objectively determined in insect tissues using automated image classification. BTV infected cells of the posterior midgut and the number of cells infected were viral strain and dose-dependent and correlated with infection rate. Virus replicated to high levels in the compound eyes, fat body and epithelial cells. The brain and other neural tissues were infected at later times tested, coinciding with the expected time of BTV transmission. Viral RNA and antigen were undetectable in the salivary glands and oocytes, but were detected at high prevalence in the mouthparts.

These data show, for the first time, that Culicoides-borne arboviruses may exploit an alternative mechanism for transmission to a host than that used by mosquito-borne arboviruses. BTV may be transmitted directly from the mouthparts, without requiring the ability to replicate in the salivary glands.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Additional Information: BBSRC funding is with the Pirbright Institute ref: BBS/E/I/00001757.
Keywords: Bluetongue, bluetongue virus, BTV, Culicoides, arbovirus, vector.
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation > Centre for Virus Research
Supervisor's Name: Palmarini, Professor Massimo and Wilson, Dr Anthony and Mertens, Professor Peter and Hawes, Dr Pippa and Andrew, Dr Shaw and Boyce, Dr Mark and Pullinger, Dr Gillian
Date of Award: 2017
Embargo Date: 17 September 2020
Depositing User: Dr Alice Muntzer
Unique ID: glathesis:2017-8358
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2017 10:01
Last Modified: 08 Dec 2017 15:46
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/8358

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