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End organ effects of paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass

Vassalos, Tony (2011) End organ effects of paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass. MD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

Despite the scientific, technological and surgical improvements of the past 50 years organ dysfunction following elective paediatric cardiac surgery utilising cardiopulmonary bypass continues to account for increased complications, often leading to a protracted course in hospital with a longer stay in intensive care and the potential for irreversible organ damage long term. Furthermore, paediatric cardiac surgeons are routinely undertaking more complex operations with a shift from palliation to early correction. This has resulted in younger children being subjected to longer periods on the bypass machine with increased effects on vital organs. This thesis describes two clinical studies designed to further assess and characterise peri-operative cardiac, renal and pulmonary function in children undergoing elective cardiac repair at a tertiary referral centre in Scotland, UK. In the first instance a prospective, observational study was undertaken in forty-five children to examine the use of tissue Doppler imaging in the assessment of peri-operative cardiac function, its relationship to myocardial injury and clinical outcome. Tissue Doppler parameters were obtained using a Vivid 7 ultrasound scanner with a 7-MHz probe pre-operatively, on admission to paediatric intensive care and on day one. Myocardial injury was assessed using Troponin-I on the first post-operative day by a commercially available chemiluminescent immunoassay. In twenty children within this group peri-operative renal function was also investigated using standard estimates of glomerular filtration rate, namely creatinine clearance measured by the kinetic Jaffe method during the first and second twelve hour post-operative periods, in comparison to serum creatinine and the novel biomarker cystatin C. Routine plasma retained pre-operatively and on days 0, 1, 2 and 3 post-operatively was used to measure serum cystatin C and creatinine using a particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay and the Roche Creatinine Plus enzymatic assay respectively. The association between cystatin C and recorded perfusion parameters including bypass duration, pump flow, haematocrit, oxygen delivery and Troponin-I was investigated. Peri-operative pulmonary function was evaluated through a phase IV, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. In total, twenty four children were randomised to receive oral sildenafil or equivalent volume placebo four times the day before surgery. Blood samples were collected peri-operatively to measure serum cyclic guanosine monophosphate with a commercially available competitive enzyme immunoassay. Haemodynamic data and echocardiography were acquired at two and twenty four hours post-operatively including pulmonary vascular resistance index and bi-ventricular contractility. Post-operative oxygenation was also determined at the same time by oxygen delivery and oxygenation index. In Chapter 2, peri-operative cardiac function as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging was examined. The results of this study demonstrated that pre-operatively, bi-ventricular systolic function in the study group was reduced compared with normal controls, displaying a significant step-wise decrease with increasing complexity of lesion. This picture persisted post-operatively predominantly in the right ventricle and was significantly associated with the extent of myocardial injury. Impaired peri-operative left ventricular function correlated with clinical outcomes. In Chapter 3, peri-operative renal function as assessed by cystatin C and its association with parameters of perfusion was examined. The results of this study demonstrated that in comparison to serum creatinine, cystatin C had a superior correlation with glomerular filtration rate in the early post-operative period. An elevated level of this biomarker was significantly associated with bypass duration, minimum pump flow and post-operative myocardial injury. Haematocrit was not directly linked to renal dysfunction in this study although evidence of a critical dysoxic threshold within the kidney was suggested indirectly through oxygen delivery calculations. In Chapter 4, peri-operative pulmonary function and vascular reactivity in association with the pre-operative administration of oral sildenafil (0.5mg/kg, six hourly) was examined. The results of this trial demonstrated that compared to placebo, pre-operative sildenafil resulted in modest elevations of serum cyclic guanosine monophosphate, limited effects on pulmonary vascular resistance index, significant reductions in peri-operative bi-ventricular contractility, significant reductions in post-operative oxygen delivery and a trend for increasing ventilatory support. In summary, the current thesis has demonstrated that in children undergoing corrective cardiac surgery peri-operative bi-ventricular function can be accurately assessed by tissue Doppler imaging which to date has had limited use in this patient group. With regards to renal function, cystatin C was shown to be a better estimate of glomerular filtration rate and a more sensitive marker of early renal dysfunction in children after surgery. Furthermore, cystatin C identified a transient post-operative renal impairment, the magnitude of which was associated with duration of bypass, pump flow and myocardial injury. In relation to pulmonary function, this research identified that pre-operative administration of oral sildenafil to children undergoing cardiac surgery produced limited effects on pulmonary vascular resistance but was associated with reduced ventricular contractility and post-operative oxygenation raising significant concerns over its routine clinical use.

Item Type: Thesis (MD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: paediatric cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, tissue Doppler imaging, cystatin C, oxygen delivery, sildenafil, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary endothelial dysfunction, myocardial injury, cardiac-Troponin-I
Subjects: R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
R Medicine > RD Surgery
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Supervisor's Name: Lyall, Prof. Fiona and Danton, Mr. Mark H.D.
Date of Award: 2011
Depositing User: Dr Antony Vassalos
Unique ID: glathesis:2011-2385
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 11 Mar 2011
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2012 13:54
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/2385

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