HIF prolyl hydroxylase-3 regulates actin polymerisation and hypoxia-induced motility and invasion.
PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
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Limited oxygen availability (hypoxia) influences cell migration and invasion, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Much of the cellular response to hypoxia is regulated by a family of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3), each of which is thought to regulate specific pathways.Their activity is dependent on the availability of oxygen and alpha-ketoglutarate but despite intensive studies their activity in vivo and their substrates are poorly defined.
In this study we performed a quantitative proteomic screen to identify new substrates of PHDs. Co-immunoprecipitations using FLAG-tagged PHDs were performed under hypoxia to trap the enzyme-substrate interactions, and binding partners were identified by mass spectrometry. Actin was identified to interact with PHD3 specifically under hypoxia. Subsequently two defined prolyl residues in beta-actin were shown to be hydroxylated. Hypoxia-induced rearrangement of
the actin cytoskeleton was shown to be dependent on PHD3 activity as a knockdown of PHD3 was sufficient to increase the intracellular G- to F-actin ratio. An increase in cell migration and invasion was also found to be dependent
on PHD3 activity. Mutation of both hydroxylated prolyl residues led to a similar phenotype regarding actin rearrangement and cell migration. Using constantly active HIF-mutants, we could show that these PHD3-dependent pathways are independent of HIF.
All together, this study shows a pro-invasive pathway linking HIF-independent oxygen-sensing pathways and actin signalling. However, the mechanism of how hypoxia-induced actin rearrangement leads to increased migration and invasion remains to be elucidated.
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