Hajeer, Mohammad Younis
3D soft-tissue, 2D hard-tissue and psychosocial chantes following orthognathic surgery.
PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
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A 3D imaging system (C3D®), based on the principles of stereophotogrammetry, has been developed for use in the assessment of facial changes following orthognathic surgery. Patients’ perception of their facial appearance before and after orthognathic surgery has been evaluated using standardised questionnaires, but few studies have tried to link this perception with the underlying two-dimensional cephalometric data. Comparisons between patients’ subjective opinions and 3D objective assessment of facial morphology have not been performed.
Aims: (1) To test the reliability of the 3D imaging system; (2) to determine the effect of orthognathic surgery on the 3D soft-tissue morphology; (3) to assess skeletal changes following orthognathic surgery; (4) to evaluate soft-tissue to hard-tissue displacement ratios; (5) to ascertain the impact of orthognathic surgery on patients’ perception of their facial appearance and their psychosocial characteristics, (6) to explore the dentofacial deformity, sex and age on the psychosocial characteristics; (7) to evaluate the extent of compatibility between the cephalometric and the three-dimensional measurements and (8) to determine if the magnitude of facial soft-tissue changes affects the perception of facial changes at six months following surgery.
Results and Conclusions: C3D imaging system was proved to be accurate with high reproducibility. The reproducibility of landmark identification on 3D models was high for 24 out of the 34 anthropometric landmarks (SD£0.5 mm). One volumetric algorithm in the Facial Analysis Tool had an acceptable accuracy for the assessment of volumetric changes following orthognathic surgery (mean error=0.314 cm3). The error of cephalometric method was low and the simulation of mandibular closure proved to be reproducible. 2D soft-tissue measurements were compatible with 3D measurements in terms of distances, but angular measurements showed significant differences (p<0.05).
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