Proteomic and metabolomic studies on milk during bovine mastitis.
PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
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The principal objectives of the study presented in this thesis were to study the changes of milk proteomes, peptidomes and metabolomes during the course of bovine mastitis in comparison with normal milk samples and to discover new bovine mastitis biomarkers using various modern and up-to-date methodologies such as proteomics, peptidomics and metabolomics.
Bovine mastitis caused by bacterial infection of the mammary gland of dairy cows is often associated with loss of milk production due to a reduction in milk composition and quality which in turns, lead to negative economic impact on dairy industry.
Two important acute phase proteins (APPs) which serve as valuable biomarkers in bovine mastitis were investigated in every chapter using developed and validated enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for bovine milk haptoglobin and commercially available ELISA for bovine milk serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3). These APPs were quantified alongside somatic cell counts (SCC) and California Mastitis Test (CMT) to confirm the disease status of each animal used in this study.
Proteomic methodologies were applied including 1D gel electrophoresis, 2D gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF analysis and difference gel electrophoresis to investigate the changes of milk proteome in both subclinical and clinical mastitic milk samples in comparison with healthy milk samples. However these investigations did not reveal novel biomarkers for mastitis.
Next, peptidomic methodologies were used to study the changes in milk peptidome and to detect the presence of any significant disease biomarkers in the presence of bovine mastitis by using CE-MS and LC-MS/MS. A total of 31 and 14 polypeptides can be used to discriminate control from infected groups and E. coli from S. aureus infected groups respectively.
Lastly, metabolomic methodology was applied with an intention to study the changes in milk metabolome and ultimately to detect the presence of novel biomarkers in bovine mastitis. Di- and tri-peptides were found higher in S. aureus than in E. coli infected groups and based on metabolic pathways, arachidonic, arginine and galactose metabolites were seen increased in mastitic milk samples in comparison to healthy milk samples.
Overall, the findings detailed in this thesis indicate that the use of advanced proteomic and metabolomic methodologies could deliver on their promise of the discovery of potential significant bovine mastitis biomarkers. Further studies are needed for validation of these proposed biomarkers and it was hoped that better prevention and treatment methods for bovine mastitis can be achieved in the future.
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