The dilemma of Kurdish nationalism as a result of international treaties and foreign occupations between the years 1850 to 1930

Ahmad, Chnor Jaafar (2019) The dilemma of Kurdish nationalism as a result of international treaties and foreign occupations between the years 1850 to 1930. MPhil(R) thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

This thesis is discussing the failing Kurdish nationalism between the year 1850 and 1930. The researcher discusses various difficulties faced by the Kurdish nationalism, particularly due to the fact that Kurdistan was occupied by the Ottoman and Persian empires, followed by the arrivals of the British Empire, France and Russians (major allied powers) in the Middle East generally, and Kurdistan particularly. These powers took a great part of Kurdistan and attached them to Turkey, Iraq and Iran. These steps were made by the treaty of Lausanne of 1923, although in the Treaty of Sevres of 1920, the right to establish an independent Kurdish state was recognized for the first time. However, due to the scattered nature of Kurdish nationalism in one hand, and the influence of the major allied powers in the region, the Kurds could not establish an independent nation-state for themselves. Interestingly, the Kurds proved their origin in the region with their distinctive culture, language and geography, but in terms of their nationalist identity, it is imperative to ask whether Kurdish nationalism was able to become a cohesive definition to introduce the Kurds within the frame of an independent state. If not, what went wrong to Kurdish nationalism?
The main objective of the thesis is to show the reader that political goal of Kurdish nationalism is lost, and could not unite all the Kurds, but always depended on the foreign powers to make it live and stand, while these powers let them down. Thus, the Kurds need to rely on itself.
The researcher argues that Kurdish nationalism could not become a united political philosophy that could attract the major allied powers towards the Kurds, and to make them honor their promises to the Kurdish independent state. In spite of the fact the Kurds had a deep-rooted culture in the region different from the Turks, Persians and Arabs, but in terms of awareness and education, the Kurds were to certain degree were illiterate in general. In other words, only few numbers of individuals were educated who could not have a broad influence on the Kurds.
There are four chapters in this thesis, in which the t Chapter One is dedicated for the literature review defining the terms ‘nation’ and ‘nationalism’ in order to serve identifying the Kurds as a nation. Chapter Two, discusses about the relevant international treaties to the Kurds and Kurdistan. Chapter Three addresses Kurdish nation as a nation and how the elements of nationhood apply to the Kurds. Chapter Four is another important chapter of the thesis, which addresses Kurdish cause. It categorizes Kurdish nationalism into three stages, they are: firstly, Kurdish nationalism during the era of Kurdish dynasties. Secondly, during the era of Kurdish revolutions starting from the revolution of Sheikh Ubeydullah Nehri in 1880 until 1908. The third one starts from 1908 until 1930s. The last chapter will be the concluding chapter.

Item Type: Thesis (MPhil(R))
Qualification Level: Masters
Keywords: Kurdish nationalism, Kurdish revolutions, Turkish nationalism, treaties.
Colleges/Schools: College of Arts > School of Humanities > History
Supervisor's Name: Rapport, Dr. Michael
Date of Award: 2019
Depositing User: Mrs Chnor Jaafar Ahmad
Unique ID: glathesis:2019-41171
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 09 May 2019 07:22
Last Modified: 09 May 2019 07:24
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/41171

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