Osteoarthritis: An experimental study in the dog

Gilbertson, Elizabeth Mary Marshall (1976) Osteoarthritis: An experimental study in the dog. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

The incidence, importance and pathology of osteoarthritis (O.A.) is reviewed, with particular reference to the dog. The main theories of pathogenesis have been outlined. Much of the information on which these hypotheses are based has been gleaned from study of post mortem or surgical specimens, and, notwithstanding extensive current research into the biochemical changes of articular cartilage, the pathogenesis of the disease remains uncertain. A study of experimentally induced O.A. was carried out in an attempt to elucidate further the early developmental stages of the disease process. O.A. was induced by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the canine stifle joint. A total of 52 dogs were used, survival time after surgery ranging from 1 to 48 weeks. A further 3 dogs were subjected to a sham operation to provide a control. The development of bone remodelling in the unstable joint was studied in detail, using techniques of fluorescent bone labelling, microradiography and vascular perfusion as well as routine histopathological examination. The relevant literature on fluorochrome labelling and microradiography has been reviewed in depth. Osteophyte formation began as early as 3 days after cruciate section in the marginal zone of the femoral trochlea. Initial fibrous metaplasia at this site was followed by florid deposition of woven bone and later, remodelling produced a mature osteophyte with a trabecular structure covered by fibrocartilage. Endochondral ossification contributed to the development of the osteophyte in the later stages. New bone deposition was still occurring 48 weeks after ligament section. Bone remodelling also occurred in the subchondral zone of the outer face of the trochlear ridge, the periosteal surface of the sub-synouial femoral cortex and the epiphyseal trabeculae, resulting ultimately in recontouring of the joint surface. Other pathological changes recorded in the joint included erosions of articular cartilage, synovitis, meniscal splitting and fibrous thickening of the joint capsule. The histopathological changes observed in articular cartilage and synovial membrane have been described briefly. The relationship betueen clinical and radiographic assessments and the type or degree of pathological change is examined. No significant pathological change was observed in the control, sham-operated joints. Increased bone remodelling and minor histological changes, possibly representing early stages of spontaneous O.A., were recorded in the contralateral stifle joint from the longer surviving experimental dogs. The remarkably early development of bone changes in the joint conflicts with the view that osteophytes are a late manifestation of the disease; joint instability may, however, influence osteophyte formation. Vascular proliferation was associated with each stage of development of the osteophyte and with other areas undergoing bone remodelling. Vascular factors probably play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this condition, which bears a close resemblance to that arising spontaneously in the joint. It is suggested that "osteoarthritis" is the most accurate term to describe both the experimental and naturally occurring condition in the canine stifle joint.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Additional Information: Adviser: Donald D Lawson
Keywords: Veterinary science
Date of Award: 1976
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:1976-73117
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 14 Jun 2019 08:56
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2019 08:56
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/73117

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