The Effects of an Exercise Programme on Health-Related Variables and Mood in Sedentary Women

Ferguson, Irene Elizabeth Gartshore (1991) The Effects of an Exercise Programme on Health-Related Variables and Mood in Sedentary Women. MSc(R) thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

This study reports on the effects of a thrice weekly exercise programme over a 12 week period on health-related fitness variables, blood lipids and mood in previously sedentary women. Each exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% of predicted maximum heart rate, 5 minutes of strength and local muscular endurance and 5 minutes of flexibility exercise. Twenty two exercisers, age 36.6+/-9.3 years (range 21-48) and 16 controls age 36.4+/-8.6 years (range 21-50) took part in the study. All subjects were assessed, before and after 12 weeks of training, on physiological variables and mood state. A sub-sample of 8 exercise and 9 control subjects had total cholesterol and plasma triglycerides assessed before and after the 12 week training period. T-tests on baseline measures showed that the two groups were not significantly different in any of the variables tested. Paired t-tests were carried out to assess if either group showed an improvement in any of the variables from Test 1 to Test 2. The exercise group significantly improved in all of the physiological variables except resting (pre-exercise) heart rate which was only of borderline significance and systolic blood pressure, which did not change significantly. The control group showed a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure and abdominal endurance. The exercise group significantly improved in all mood factors except clearheaded-confused. Neither group significantly improved total cholesterol or triglycerides. Two sample t-tests were carried out to determine if the exercise group showed a greater average improvement over the controls in any of the variables tested. The average range of improvement is indicated by 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). The exercise group showed greater average improvement in the following variables: Steady State Heart Rate during 2nd workload, 95% CI (-3.1, -14.8) beats per minute; Steady State Heart Rate during final workload, 95% CI (-5.3, -15.5) beats per minute; Estimated VO2 max, 95% CI (0.15, 0.41) Litres/minute) and (2.10, 6.16) ml/kg/minute; Low back/Hamstrings Flexibility 95% CI (2.85, 6.09) cm; Abdomianal Endurance, 95% CI (2.54, 6.72) repetitions per minute ; Sum of Skinfolds, 95% CI (-2.5, -9.3) mm; Estimated Percentage Body fat, 95% CI (-1.39, -2.55)%; Elated-Depressed Mood factor, 95% CI (1.9, 16.4) T score and Energetic-Tired Mood factor, 95% CI (1.6, 14.8) T score. Previous research has consistently reported that aerobic training can favourably influence resting heart rate, submaximal heart rate and oxygen uptake. The present study found a significantly decrease in submaximal heart rate and an increase in predicted VO2 max which is consistent with previous findings which conclude that regular aerobic exercise improves the oxygen transport system. In addition, the exercise programme resulted in significant improvements in abdominal muscular endurance and lower back/hamstrings flexibility which may result in improved posture and a decreased risk of low back pain. Increases in elation and perceived energy were evident in exercise subjects. These findings are consistent with previous research. Two sample t-tests at Test 2 revealed that the exercise group had significantly lower heart rate during submaximal exercise during the ergometer test, higher predicted VO2 max and higher mean T scores for elated-depressed and energertic-tired mood factors than the control group. These variables show the greatest differences between the groups. Paired t-tests revealed other differences, since there there is more power in within subject tests. In summary, a 12 week University exercise programme was effective in improving several physiological variables and psychological mood factors related to health and well-being in previously sedentary women.

Item Type: Thesis (MSc(R))
Qualification Level: Masters
Keywords: Kinesiology, Public health
Date of Award: 1991
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:1991-78328
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2020 15:32
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2020 15:32
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/78328

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