Targeting oxidative stress after percutaneous coronary intervention

Watt, Jonathan (2011) Targeting oxidative stress after percutaneous coronary intervention. MD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves the blood supply to the heart by unblocking narrowed coronary arteries. Implantation of a coronary stent is usually required to scaffold the artery and improve long-term vessel patency. Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been developed to decrease the incidence of stent renarrowing, known as in-stent restenosis (ISR), the main limitation of bare metal stents (BMS). DES release potent drugs into the artery wall to inhibit cell division and attenuate ISR. However, this strategy can also impair vascular healing and increase the risk of stent thrombosis, which is a serious concern. Novel approaches to this problem are urgently required. Oxidative stress reflects a state in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) prevail over antioxidant defences. PCI causes a major release of ROS from the injured artery wall and these molecules appear to play an important role in critical signalling pathways involved in vascular repair. Numerous animal studies have found that oral antioxidants may reduce ISR and improve healing, yet these strategies have not been effective in humans. Stent-based delivery of antioxidants may offer more efficacious, targeted protection against oxidative stress than oral administration. The role of oxidative stress in endothelial repair mediated by bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with coronary heart disease is also poorly defined. The main aims of this thesis were: to determine the in vitro effects of oxidative stress on key aspects of thrombosis and vascular healing; to evaluate a novel antioxidant-eluting stent in an in vivo porcine model; and to examine the relationship between oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), EPCs and coronary endothelial function in patients with stable angina.
Oxidative stress, generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction, inhibited whole blood aggregation in a concentration-dependent fashion. This was probably due to an excess of ROS which impaired, rather than stimulated, thrombosis. Healthy endothelial cells (ECs) also inhibited whole blood aggregation, but this was not mitigated by oxidative stress. EC migration was assessed using an in vitro endothelial wound scratch assay. Oxidative stress was highly toxic to ECs and inhibited migratory activity. Nitrone D, a novel spin trapping antioxidant, was evaluated for its suitability as a novel DES coating. Nitrone D displayed weak antithrombotic effects, but markedly inhibited EC migration. Nitrone D was therefore unsuitable for a DES that was intended to improve re-endothelialisation.

Oral probucol has established efficacy in animal models of restenosis, but not in humans. Probucol has been successfully incorporated as a dual DES coating with rapamycin in clinical trials. Succinobucol is a novel derivative of probucol with more potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. A novel polymer-free succinobucol-eluting stent (SES) and succinobucol/rapamycin-eluting stent (SRES) were developed and compared to a commercially available polymer-free rapamycin-eluting stent (RES) and BMS. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated optimal drug elution from the SES. However, in a porcine coronary model, the SES significantly increased neointimal thickness and aggravated ISR. The RES reduced neointimal thickness non-significantly, whereas the SRES caused no difference in neointimal thickness, compared with the BMS. The SES was associated with greater inflammation and persistent fibrin deposition around the stent struts, which are signs of defective healing. There were no significant differences in endothelial regeneration between the groups. Subsequent cell culture studies found that succinobucol was toxic to ECs and smooth muscle cells. In the clinical study, circulating levels of EPCs were strongly correlated with coronary endothelial function, which is a novel finding. Plasma oxLDL levels were not correlated with EPCs or coronary endothelial function.

In conclusion, ROS reflect a large array of molecules released after PCI that are multi-faceted regulators of platelets and vascular cells. As such, they represent a complex target for novel DES technologies. Excessive ROS may inhibit thrombus formation and delay re-endothelialisation. However, potent antioxidants delivered to injured arterial tissue after PCI may not necessarily encourage the physiological processes required to accelerate vascular repair. At high dose, local delivery of antioxidants may actually promote inflammation and aggravate ISR. Although oxLDL is known to induce endothelial dysfunction, it is not correlated with the number of circulating EPCs. These findings underline the complicated role of oxidative stress in vascular repair after PCI. Further studies are required to clarify whether antioxidants will ever provide advantages over existing options in the rapidly evolving field of interventional cardiology.

Item Type: Thesis (MD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: stents, percutaneous coronary intervention, cardiology, restenosis, re-endothelialisation, inflammation, arterial injury, antioxidants, oxidative stress, thrombosis
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Health
Supervisor's Name: Oldroyd, Professor Keith G., Wadsworth, Professor Roger M. and Kennedy, Dr. Simon
Date of Award: 2011
Depositing User: Dr Jonathan Watt
Unique ID: glathesis:2011-2877
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 11 Oct 2011
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2012 14:01

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