Nonlinear characterisation of power ultrasonic devices used in bone surgery

Mathieson, Andrew C. (2012) Nonlinear characterisation of power ultrasonic devices used in bone surgery. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Ultrasonic cutting has existed in surgery since the 1950s. However, it was not until the end of the 20th century that advances in ultrasonic tool design, transduction and control allowed commercially viable ultrasonic cutting devices to enter the market. Ultrasonic surgical devices, like those in other power ultrasonic applications such as drilling and welding, require devices to be driven at high power to ensure sufficient output motion is produced to fulfil the application it is designed to perform. With the advent of novel surgical techniques surgeons require tuned ultrasonic tools which can reduce invasiveness while giving access to increasingly difficult to reach surgical sites. To fulfil the requirements of novel surgical procedures new tuned tools need to be designed. Meanwhile, it is well documented that power ultrasonic devices, whilst driven at high power, are inherently nonlinear and, if no attempt is made to understand and subsequently control these behaviours, it is likely that these devices will suffer from poor performance or even failure.

The behaviour of the commercial ultrasonic transducer used in bone surgery (Piezosurgery® Device) is dynamically characterised through finite element and experimental methods whilst operating in conjunction with a variety of tuned inserts. Finite element analysis was used to predict modal parameters as well as stress levels within the tuned devices whilst operating at elevated amplitudes of vibration, while experimental modal analysis validated predicted resonant frequencies and mode shapes between 0-80kHz. To investigate the behaviour of tuned devices at elevated vibrational amplitudes near resonance, responses were measured whilst the device was excited via the burst sine sweep method. In an attempt to provide an understanding of the effects that geometry, material selection and wavelength of tuned assemblies have on the behaviour of an ultrasonic device, tuned inserts consisting of a simple rod horn design were characterised alongside more complex cutting inserts which are used in maxillofacial and craniofacial surgery. From these results the aim will be to develop guidelines for design of tuned inserts.

Meanwhile, Langevin transducers, commonly known as sandwich or stack transducers, in their most basic form generally consist of four parts; a front mass, a back mass, a piezoceramic stack and a stud or bolt holding the parts together under a compressive pre-load. It is traditionally proposed that the piezoceramic stack is positioned at or close to the vibrational nodal point of the longitudinal mode, however, this also corresponds with the position of highest dynamic stress. It is also well documented that piezoceramic materials possess a low linear stress threshold, therefore this research, in part, investigates whether locating the piezoceramic stack away from a position of intrinsic high stress will affect the behaviour of the device.

Through experimental characterisation it has been observed that the tuned devices under investigation exhibited; resonant frequency shifts, jump amplitudes, hysteretic behaviour as well as autoparametric vibration. The source of these behaviours have been found to stem from device geometry, but also from heating within the piezoceramic elements as well as joints with different joining torques.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Power ultrasonics, ultrasonic device design, ultrasonic device characterisation, nonlinear behaviour, experimental modal analysis, finite element analysis, ultrasonic surgery.
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
R Medicine > RD Surgery
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering
Supervisor's Name: Cardoni, Dr. Andrea and Lucas, Prof. Margaret
Date of Award: 2012
Depositing User: Dr Andrew Mathieson
Unique ID: glathesis:2012-3135
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 23 Jan 2012
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2012 14:04

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