Studies of acute phase proteins and tumour necrosis factor receptors as inflammatory markers in the cat

Duthie, Susan (1999) Studies of acute phase proteins and tumour necrosis factor receptors as inflammatory markers in the cat. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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The measurement of acute phase proteins is used by human clinicians to give valuable
infonnation about a patient's inflammatory response, both when monitoring clinical
disease and when assessing the effect of therapy. Levels of soluble receptors for the
cytokine, tumour necrosis factor, also increase as a result of inflammatory stimuli and
are useful prognostic markers over the asymptomatic phase of human
immunodeficiency virus infection. The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to
detennine whether these markers are of value when investigating feline disease.
Reference ranges for two acute phase proteins, aI-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and
haptoglobin were detennined by measuring their concentrations in serum samples from
healthy cats. Analysis of samples from cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and
from cats suffering from conditions with a similar clinical presentation revealed that
measurement of AGP can be a useful adjunct to other laboratory tests when reaching a
diagnosis. In contrast, measurement of haptoglobin was not found to be of value.
Despite increases in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in samples taken from
cats during the asymptomatic phase of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection,
no changes were detected in the levels of AGP and haptoglobin. It was concluded that
these acute phase proteins are of no benefit as prognostic markers in FlY.
The L929 bioassay was used to investigate anti-TNF-a activity in cell culture
fluids from feline splenic cells. Cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in very few of the
samples whilst anti-cytotoxic activity was detected in the majority of samples. This
anti-cytotoxic activity was attributed to the presence of feline soluble TNF receptor
type 1 (sTNFR-I) binding to and inhibiting the effects of TNF-a. This was not
confinned because of the lack of specific neutralising antibody. Subsequent work was
therefore directed towards the development of immune-based species-specific assays
for feline soluble TNF receptors (sTNFRs).
The polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the sequences coding for
feline sTNFRs. Most of the extracellular domain of feline TNFR-l and part of the
intracellular domain of feline TNFR-2 were cloned and sequenced using this
technique. The amplified regions demonstrated 85% and 77% homology at the nucleic
acid level and 83% and 67% homology at the amino acid level to the corresponding
regions of the human sequences for TNFR-l and 2 respectively. Feline sTNFR-l was
expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein. After purification,
concentration and electrophoresis, the appropriate protein band was excised and used
to inoculate a sheep. Antiserum taken from the sheep post-inoculation recognised the
expressed protein by western blotting, but results were inconsistent and analysis of the
antiserum was hampered by the very small amounts of expressed protein available.
Two peptides were synthesised based on regions of antigenicity in feline
sTNFR-l and were used to inoculate sheep. Antiserum to peptide A showed a strong
reaction against peptide A in an ELISA and gave a positive result when used as the
primary antibody to stain healthy feline liver tissue.
In conclusion, both antiserum to expressed feline sTNFR-l and anti-peptide
antibody based on a region of feline sTNFR-l have been raised in sheep and are
available for the development of an assay for this protein. Further expression of feline
TNFR-l will be required before these antisera can be analysed fully.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Subjects: S Agriculture > SF Animal culture > SF600 Veterinary Medicine
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Supervisor's Name: Eckersall, Dr. David
Date of Award: 1999
Depositing User: Mrs Marie Cairney
Unique ID: glathesis:1999-4809
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 08 Jan 2014 16:44
Last Modified: 08 Jan 2014 16:47

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