Harmonic domain modelling and analysis of the electrical power systems of onshore and offshore oil and gas field /platform

Okara, Ikpe Chikwe (2014) Harmonic domain modelling and analysis of the electrical power systems of onshore and offshore oil and gas field /platform. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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This thesis first focuses on harmonic studies of high voltage cable and power line, more specifically the harmonic resonance. The cable model is undergrounded system, making it ideal for the harmonics studies. A flexible approach to the modelling of the frequency dependent part provides information about possible harmonic excitations and the voltage waveform during a transient. The power line is modelled by means of lumped-parameters model and also describes the long line effect. The modelling depth and detail of the cable model influences the simulation results. It compares two models, first where an approximate model which make use of complex penetration is used and the second where an Bessel function model with internal impedance is used. The both models incorporate DC resistance, skin effect and their harmonic performances are investigated for steady-state operating condition. The methods illustrate the impotance of including detailed representation of the skin effect in the power line and cable models, even when ground mode exists. The cable model exhibit lower harmonics comparable to overhead transmission lines due to strong influence of the ground mode.

Due to the application of voltage source converter (VSC) technology and pulse width modulation (PWM) the VSC-HVDC has a number of potential advantages as compared with CSC-HVDC, such as short circuit current reduction, independent control of active power and reactive power, etc. With these advantages VSC-HVDC will likely be widely used in future oil and gas transmission and distribution systems.
Modular multilevel PWM converter applies modular approach and phase-shifted concepts achieving a number of advantages to be use in HVDC power transmission.
This thesis describes the VSC three-phase full-bridge design of sub-module in modular multilevel converter (MMC). The main research efforts focus on harmonic reduction using IGBTs switches, which has ON and OFF capability. The output voltage waveforms multilevel are obtained using pulse width modulation (PWM) control. The cascaded H-bridge (CHB) MMC is used to investigate for two-level, five-level, seven-level, nine-level converter staircase waveforms. The results show that the harmonics are further reduced as the sub-module converter increases.

The steady-state simulation model of the oil platform for harmonic studies has been developed using MATLAB. In order to save computational time aggregated models are used. The load on the platforms consists of passive loads, induction motors, and a constant power load representing variable speed drives on the platforms. The wind farm consists of a wind turbine and an induction machine operating at fixed speed using a back-to-back VSC. Simulations are performed on system harmonics that are thought to be critical for the operation of the system. The simulation cases represent large and partly exaggerated disturbances in order to test the limitations of the system. The results show low loss, low harmonics, and stable voltage and current.

With the developments of multilevel VSC technology in this thesis, multi-terminal direct current (MTDC) systems integrating modular multilevel converters at all nodes may be more easily designed. It is shown that self-commutated Voltage Source Converters (VSC) is more flexible than the more conventional Current Source Converter (CSC) since active and reactive powers are controlled independently. The space required by the equipment of this technology is smaller when compared to the space used by the CSCs. In addition, the installation and maintenance costs are reduced. With these advantages, it will be possible for several oil and gas production fields connected together by multi-terminal DC grid. With this development the platforms will not only share energy from the wind farms, but also provide cheaper harmonic mitigation solutions.
The model of a multi-terminal hypothetical power system consisting of three oil and gas platforms and two offshore wind farm stations without a common connection to the onshore power grid is studied. The connection to the onshore grid is realized through a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmissions system based on Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology.

The proposed models address a wide array of harmonic mitigation solutions, i.e., (i) Local harmonic mitigation (ii) semi-global harmonic mitigation and (iii) global harmonic mitigation. In addition, a computationally-efficient technique is proposed and implemented to impose the operating constraints of the VSC and the host IGBT-PWM switches within the context of the developed harmonic power flow (HPF). Novel closed forms for updating the corresponding VSC power and voltage reference set-points are proposed to guarantee that the power-flow solution fully complies with the VSC constraints. All the proposed platform models represent (i) the high voltage AC/DC and DC/AC power conversion applications under balanced harmonic power-flow scenario and (ii) all the operating limits and constraints of the nodes and its host modular converter (iii) three-phase VSC coupled IGBT-PWM switches.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Bessel function, cable, Skin effect, DC Resistance, Resonance, Wind farm, oil and gas platforms, harmonics, VSC-HVDC, active filter, rectifier, inverter, converter
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Systems Power and Energy
Supervisor's Name: Cossar, Dr Calum
Date of Award: 2014
Unique ID: glathesis:2014-5593
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 12 Nov 2014 13:41
Last Modified: 16 Oct 2017 08:48
URI: https://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/5593

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