Optical devices for biochemical sensing in flame hydrolysis deposited glass

Ruano-Lopez, Jesus M. (2000) Optical devices for biochemical sensing in flame hydrolysis deposited glass. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Previous research in the field of Flame Hydrolysis Deposition (FHD) of glasses has focused on the production of low cost optical devices for the field of telecommunications. The originality of this doctoral research resides in the exploration of this technology in the fabrication of optical bio-chemical sensors, with integrated "Lab-on-a-chip" devices. To achieve this goal, we have combined and applied different microfabrication processes for the manufacture of sensor platforms using FHD. These structures are unique in that they take advantage of the intrinsic benefits of the microfabrication process, such as, miniaturisation and mass production, and combine them with the properties of FHD glass, namely: low loss optical transducing mechanisms, planar technologies and monolithic integration. This thesis demonstrates that FHD is a suitable technology for biosensing and Lab- on-a-Chip applications. The objective is to provide future researchers with the necessary tools to accomplish an integrated analytical system based on FHD. We have designed, fabricated, and successfully tested a FHD miniaturised sensor, which comprised optical and microfluidic circuitry, in the framework of low volume fluorescence assays. For the first time, volumes as low as 570 pL were analysed with a Cyanine-5 fluorophore with a detection limit of 20 pM, or ca. 6000 molecules (+/-3sigma) for this platform. The fabrication of the sensor generated a compilation of processes that were then utilised to produce other possible optical platforms for bio-chemical sensors in FHD, e.g. arrays and microfluidics. The "catalogue" of methods used included new recipes for reactive ion etching, glass deposition and bonding techniques that enabled the development of the microfluidic circuitry, integrated with an optical circuitry. Furthermore, we developed techniques to implement new tasks such as optical signal treatment using integrated optical structures, planar arraying of sensors, a separating element for liquid chromatography, and finally a pumping system for delivering small amounts of liquid along the microfluidic channels. This thesis comprises six chapters. In Chapter 1, an overview of the topic was presented, offering a review of the various fields addressed, as well as a description of the motivation and originality of this work. Chapter 2 describes the processes developed to fabricate an optical sensor, and Chapter 3 assesses its performance. In Chapter 4, integrated optical circuit designs and their fabrication methods, as well as developing and testing of an array of sensors, are presented. The description of a separating element involved in a liquid chromatography system, and the pumping of liquids in a FHD optical device, were addressed in Chapter 5. Finally, Chapter 6 summarised the conclusions and suggested possible future work. Last but not least, the appendix, contains techniques for hybrid integration; recipes for etching of rare earth glasses; as well as instrumentation designs. This research has taken Flame Hydrolysis Deposition technique into the world of optical bio-chemical sensors, creating a bridge between analytical assays and FHD glass. In this respect, the demonstrated flexibility of the technology will enable a variety of configurations to be created and implemented, with the prospect of using the techniques for laboratory-on-a-chip technologies. The work has been patented by the University of Glasgow, for future exploitation in analytical biotechnology and Lab-on-a-Chip.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Electrical engineering, materials science.
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering
Supervisor's Name: Cooper, Prof. J.M. and Aitchison, Prof. J.S.
Date of Award: 2000
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:2000-71985
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 17 May 2019 13:31
Last Modified: 11 Aug 2021 10:14
URI: https://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/71985

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