Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and determination of outcome of pulmonary hypertension

Crawley, Stephen F. (2016) Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and determination of outcome of pulmonary hypertension. MD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare but serious condition that causes progressive right ventricular (RV) failure and death. PH may be idiopathic, associated with underlying connective-tissue disease or hypoxic lung disease, and is also increasingly being observed in the setting of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The management of PH has been revolutionised by the recent development of new disease-targeted therapies which are beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but can be potentially harmful in PH due to left heart disease, so accurate diagnosis and classification of patients is essential. These PAH therapies improve exercise capacity and pulmonary haemodynamics, but their overall effect on the right ventricle remains unclear. Current practice in the UK is to assess treatment response with 6-minute walk test and NYHA functional class, neither of which truly reflects RV function. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has been established as the gold standard for the evaluation of right ventricular structure and function, but it also allows a non-invasive and accurate study of the left heart. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the use of CMR in the diagnosis of PH, in the assessment of treatment response, and in predicting survival in idiopathic and connective-tissue disease associated PAH. In Chapter 3, a left atrial volume (LAV) threshold of 43 ml/m2 measured with CMR was able to distinguish idiopathic PAH from PH due to HFpEF (sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%). In Chapter 4, disease-targeted PAH therapy resulted in significant improvements in RV and left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001 and p=0.0007, respectively), RV stroke volume index (p<0.0001), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (p=0.0015). These corresponded to observed improvements in functional class and exercise capacity, although correlation coefficients between Δ 6MWD and Δ RVEF or Δ LVEDV were low. Finally, in Chapter 5, one-year and three-year survival was worse in CTD-PAH (75% and 53%) than in IPAH (83% and 74%), despite similar baseline clinical characteristics, lung function, pulmonary haemodynamics and treatment. Baseline right ventricular stroke volume index was an independent predictor of survival in both conditions. The presence of LV systolic dysfunction was of prognostic significance in CTD-PAH but not IPAH, and a higher LAV was observed in CTD-PAH suggesting a potential contribution from LV diastolic dysfunction in this group.

Item Type: Thesis (MD)
Keywords: Pulmonary hypertension, magnetic resonance imaging, right ventricle, left atrium.
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Health
Supervisor's Name: Peacock, Professor Andrew J
Date of Award: 2016
Depositing User: Dr Stephen Crawley
Unique ID: glathesis:2016-7431
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 20 Jun 2016 08:40
Last Modified: 12 Jul 2016 08:05

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