An Ultrasonographic Study of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Mammary Gland Tumour in Small Animals

Bakar-Zakaria, Md Zuki Abu (1999) An Ultrasonographic Study of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Mammary Gland Tumour in Small Animals. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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With advances in ultrasound technology and the development of high resolution transducers, imaging of the musculoskeletal system and its pathology has become possible. The present study was carried out to assess the value of diagnostic ultrasonography using a high frequency transducer (7.5 MHz) in musculoskeletal injuries of small animals. In addition, an attempt was made to document the value of high resolution ultrasonographic imaging on canine mammary gland tumours and their ultrasonographic characteristics. Live animals used in this study were gathered from two main places in the Glasgow area: the clinical cases referred to the Glasgow University Small Animal Clinics (GUSAC) for fracture repair and wound healing studies and the cases referred to the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals (PDSA) for canine mammary tumour study. Canine cadavers collected from the Glasgow area were used for normal muscle imaging and a preliminary study of abdominal wounds. A B-mode realtime ultrasound scanner (Capasee, TOSHIBA) with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer was used through out the study. The images were recorded during each examination for review at a later date. Skeletal muscles of normal greyhound cadavers imaged ultrasonographically appeared as a homogenously hypoechoic structure with fine echoes scattered throughout the muscle parenchyma. Each muscle group could be identified, separated by a thin hyperechoic structure which was actually the connective tissue fascia. Bone appeared as a strong hyperechoic image with complete acoustic shadowing distally when the transducer was correctly inclined. Normal ventral abdominal musculature (VAM) imaged ultrasonographically appeared isoechoic relative to the muscle tissue. The VAM with the presence of new incision site revealed a disorganised area with ill defined margins which was hypoechoic relative to the surrounding tissues. The VAM with the presence of an old incision site varied from hypoechoic to hyperechoic. The majority of the cadavers examined (17) fell into this group. Most of the VAM with an old incision site appeared as an ill-defined disorganised hyperechoic area relative to the surrounding tissues. Fluid accumulation within the subcutaneous tissue could be detected within 24 hours post-operation appearing anechoic to hypoechoic with acoustic shadowing artefact depending on the content of the fluid. The formation of fibrous tissue at the surgical site could be seen ultrasonographically and appeared as an hypoechoic structure with acoustic shadowing artefact in the early stages, and later with time it appeared as an ill-defined hypoechoic area with an echogenic centre and casting an acoustic shadowing artefact. When the fibrous tissue matured the surgical site appeared as a disorganised hyperechoic area with acoustic shadowing artefact. A fracture site imaged longitudinally with ultrasound appeared as a discontinuity of the smooth bone surface. Soft callus formation could be detected and appeared as a disorganised hyperechoic structure with no artefact produced. However, it was not apparent radiographically. The repair process of bone fractures could be successfully monitored with ultrasound without any risk of exposure to radiation of the animal. Furthermore, complications of fracture repair could be detected at an early stage with ultrasound and the result was immediate. Haematoma formation at the fracture site could be demonstrated within 24 hours after operation and its resolution could be successfully monitored. The ultrasonographic appearance of canine mammary tumour tissue was divided into three groups: group one was represented by small areas of tumour tissue which appeared anechoic to hypoechoic: group two was represented by areas of tumour tissue appearing as areas of mixed echotexture; group three was represented by large areas of tumour tissue which were large and appeared hyperechoic, sometimes with the presence of cystic structures. Acoustic enhancement artefact was the most prominent feature for all groups of tumour masses. The normal axillary and superficial inguinal lymph nodes appeared as round hypoechoic to isoechoic structures relative to surrounding soft tissues. The enlarged abnormal regional lymph nodes varied in echogenicity from homogeneous hypoechoic structures through a mixed echotexture to a more echogenic echotexture relative to surrounding soft tissues. Ultrasonography would appear to offer potential to become a routine procedure in mammary tumour tissue detection in small animals in the future.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Additional Information: Adviser: John S Boyd
Keywords: Veterinary science, Medical imaging
Date of Award: 1999
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:1999-75418
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 19 Nov 2019 20:10
Last Modified: 19 Nov 2019 20:10

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