Biochemical and epidemiological investigations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug usage and related side effects in equids

Duz, Marco (2016) Biochemical and epidemiological investigations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug usage and related side effects in equids. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in equine veterinary practice. These drugs exert their effect by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which control prostaglandin production, a major regulator of tissue perfusion. Two isoforms of COX enzymes exist: COX-1 is physiologically present in tissues, while COX-2 is up-regulated during inflammation and has been indicated as responsible for the negative effects of an inflammatory response. Evidence suggests that NSAIDs that inhibit only COX-2, preserving the physiological function of COX-1 might have a safer profile. Studies that evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on COX enzymes are all performed under experimental conditions and none uses actual clinical patients. The biochemical investigations in this work focus on describing the effect on COX enzymes activity of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone, two non-selective COX inhibitors and firocoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, in clinical patients undergoing elective surgery. A separate epidemiological investigation was aimed at describing the impact that the findings of biochemical data have on a large population of equids. Electronic medical records (EMRs) from 454,153 equids were obtained from practices in the United Kingdom, United States of America and Canada. Information on prevalence and indications for NSAIDs use was extracted from the EMRs via a text mining technique, improved from the literature and described and validated within this Thesis. Further the prevalence of a clinical sign compatible with NSAID toxicity, such as diarrhoea, is reported along with analysis evaluating NSAID administration in light of concurrent administration of other drugs and comorbidities. This work confirms findings from experimental settings that NSAIDs firocoxib is COX-2 selective and that flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone are non-selective COX inhibitors and therefore their administration carries a greater risk of toxicity. However the impact of this finding needs to be interpreted with caution as epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of toxicity is in fact small and the use of these drugs at the labelled dose is quite safe.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Additional Information: Duz M, Parkin TDH, Cullander RM and Marshall JF, 2015. Effect of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib on ex- vivo cyclooxygenase activity in horses undergoing elective surgery. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 76(3), 208-215.
Keywords: Equid, horse, NSAID, phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, firocoxib, NSAID toxicity, diarrhoea, diarrhea, colic, orthopaedic disease, antimicrobial, corticosteroid, anthelmintic drug, laxative, intravenous fluid therapy, meloxicam, metamizole, ketoprofen
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Supervisor's Name: Parkin, Dr. Tim D. and Marshall, Dr. John F.
Date of Award: 2016
Depositing User: Mr Marco Duz
Unique ID: glathesis:2016-7581
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2016 15:06
Last Modified: 04 Oct 2019 14:31
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