Surface acoustic wave streaming in a PDMS microfluidic system: effect of frequency and fluid geometry & A remote ultrasonic glucose sensor

Tiller, Ben (2016) Surface acoustic wave streaming in a PDMS microfluidic system: effect of frequency and fluid geometry & A remote ultrasonic glucose sensor. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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This thesis describes two separate projects. The first is a theoretical and experimental investigation of surface acoustic wave streaming in microfluidics. The second is the development of a novel acoustic glucose sensor. A separate abstract is given for each here.

Optimization of acoustic streaming in microfluidic channels by SAWs
Surface Acoustic Waves, (SAWs) actuated on flat piezoelectric substrates constitute a convenient and versatile tool for microfluidic manipulation due to the easy and versatile interfacing with microfluidic droplets and channels. The acoustic streaming effect can be exploited to drive fast streaming and pumping of fluids in microchannels and droplets (Shilton et al. 2014; Schmid et al. 2011), as well as size dependant sorting of particles in centrifugal flows and vortices (Franke et al. 2009; Rogers et al. 2010). Although the theory describing acoustic streaming by SAWs is well understood, very little attention has been paid to the optimisation of SAW streaming by the correct selection of frequency. In this thesis a finite element simulation of the fluid streaming in a microfluidic chamber due to a SAW beam was constructed and verified against micro-PIV measurements of the fluid flow in a fabricated device. It was found that there is an optimum frequency that generates the fastest streaming dependent on the height and width of the chamber. It is hoped this will serve as a design tool for those who want to optimally match SAW frequency with a particular microfluidic design.

An acoustic glucose sensor
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterised by an inability to properly regulate blood glucose levels. In order to keep glucose levels under control some diabetics require regular injections of insulin. Continuous monitoring of glucose has been demonstrated to improve the management of diabetes (Zick et al. 2007; Heinemann & DeVries 2014), however there is a low patient uptake of continuous glucose monitoring systems due to the invasive nature of the current technology (Ramchandani et al. 2011). In this thesis a novel way of monitoring glucose levels is proposed which would use ultrasonic waves to ‘read’ a
subcutaneous glucose sensitive-implant, which is only minimally invasive. The implant is an acoustic analogy of a Bragg stack with a ‘defect’ layer that acts as the sensing layer. A numerical study was performed on how the physical changes in the sensing layer can be deduced by monitoring the reflection amplitude spectrum of ultrasonic waves reflected from the implant. Coupled modes between the skin and the sensing layer were found to be a potential source of error and drift in the measurement. It was found that by increasing the number of layers in the stack that this could be minimized. A laboratory proof of concept system was developed using a glucose sensitive hydrogel as the sensing layer. It was possible to monitor the changing thickness and speed of sound of the hydrogel due to physiological relevant changes in glucose concentration.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Surface, acoustic, wave, SAW, streaming, microfluidic, comsol, optimisation, gluocse, sensor, subcutaneous, phononic, ultrasonic, ultrasonic sensor, medical, diabetes, CGM, continuous, monitor.
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Biomedical Engineering
Funder's Name: EPSRC, EPSRC, EPSRC
Supervisor's Name: Cooper, Prof. Jonathan and Reboud, Dr. Julien
Date of Award: 2016
Depositing User: Dr Benjamin Tiller
Unique ID: glathesis:2016-7670
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 01 Nov 2016 16:02
Last Modified: 02 Nov 2016 13:33

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