An investigation into the folding and assembly of engineered antibodies and novel antibody formats

Stoyle, Chloe Louisa (2016) An investigation into the folding and assembly of engineered antibodies and novel antibody formats. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Monoclonal antibodies and novel antibody formats are currently one of the principal therapeutic in the biopharmaceutical industry worldwide and are widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. It is for this reason that the productivity and quality of antibody production requires improvement; specifically investigations into the engineering of antibodies and any issues that may arise from the production of these therapeutics. The work presented in this thesis describes an investigation into the folding and assembly of seven antibodies plus the novel antibody format FabFv.
IgG is comprised of two identical HCs and two identical LCs. The folding process of immunoglobulin is controlled by the CH1 domain within the HC. The CH1 domain remains in a disordered state and is sequestered by BiP in the endoplasmic reticulum. Upon the addition of a folded CL domain, BiP is displaced, the CH1 domain is able to fold and the complete IgG protein can then be secreted from the cell. The results presented in this thesis however, have outlined an additional mechanism for the folding of the CH1 domain. We have shown that the CH1 domain is able to fold in the absence of LC resulting in the secretion of HC dimers in a VH dependent manner. The proposed mechanism for the secretion of HC dimers suggests that some VH domains can interact with each other in order to bring the CH1 domains in close proximity to enable folding to occur. As HC dimer secretion is a hindrance in antibody production, this result has highlighted an engineering target to improve antibody yield. Examination of the folding of IgG4 with the variable region A33 has revealed the inability to secrete LC dimers, cleavage of the HC during expression and secretion of HC dimers in the Fab, FabFv and full length forms. The attributes described have also been shown to be variable region dependent. This has introduced a new concept that the variable domain is important in determining the expression and secretion of antibodies and their individual chains.
Pulse chase and 2D gel electrophoresis analysis of the novel antibody format FabFv has revealed that the folding and expression of the LC and HC causes multimeric species of FabFv to be secreted, as opposed to the monomeric form which is the desired therapeutic. Our hypothesis is that this process occurs via a LC dependent mechanism. The proposed hypothesis suggests that further engineering to the LC could diminish the formation and secretion of FabFv multimers. The results from these investigations can be applied to increase the productivity of therapeutics and increase the biological understanding of the domain interactions of IgG during folding, assembly and secretion.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Antibodies, FabFv, protein folding, secretion.
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Molecular Biosciences
Funder's Name: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
Supervisor's Name: Bulleid, Professor Neil J. and Cain, Dr. Katharine
Date of Award: 2016
Depositing User: Ms Chloe L Stoyle
Unique ID: glathesis:2016-7675
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 21 Oct 2016 08:14
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2016 12:50

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