Audio-visual football video analysis, from structure detection to attention analysis

Ren, Reede (2008) Audio-visual football video analysis, from structure detection to attention analysis. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Sport video is an important video genre. Content-based sports video analysis attracts great interest from both industry and academic fields. A sports video is characterised by repetitive temporal structures, relatively plain contents, and strong spatio-temporal variations, such as quick camera switches and swift local motions. It is necessary to develop specific techniques for content-based sports video analysis to utilise these characteristics.

For an efficient and effective sports video analysis system, there are three fundamental questions: (1) what are key stories for sports videos; (2) what incurs viewer’s interest; and (3) how to identify game highlights. This thesis is developed around these questions. We approached these questions from two different perspectives and in turn three research contributions are presented, namely, replay detection, attack temporal structure decomposition, and attention-based highlight identification.

Replay segments convey the most important contents in sports videos. It is an efficient approach to collect game highlights by detecting replay segments. However, replay is an artefact of editing, which improves with advances in video editing tools. The composition of replay is complex, which includes logo transitions, slow motions, viewpoint switches and normal speed video clips. Since logo transition clips are pervasive in game collections of FIFA World Cup 2002, FIFA World Cup 2006 and UEFA Championship 2006, we take logo transition detection as an effective replacement of replay detection. A two-pass system was developed, including a five-layer adaboost classifier and a logo template matching throughout an entire video. The five-layer adaboost utilises shot duration, average game pitch ratio, average motion, sequential colour histogram and shot frequency between two neighbouring logo transitions, to filter out logo transition candidates. Subsequently, a logo template is constructed and employed to find all transition logo sequences. The precision and recall of this system in replay detection is 100% in a five-game evaluation collection.

An attack structure is a team competition for a score. Hence, this structure is a conceptually fundamental unit of a football video as well as other sports videos. We review the literature of content-based temporal structures, such as play-break structure, and develop a three-step system for automatic attack structure decomposition. Four content-based shot classes, namely, play, focus, replay and break were identified by low level visual features. A four-state hidden Markov model was trained to simulate transition processes among these shot classes. Since attack structures are the longest repetitive temporal unit in a sports video, a suffix tree is proposed to find the longest repetitive substring in the label sequence of shot class transitions. These occurrences of this substring are regarded as a kernel of an attack hidden Markov process. Therefore, the decomposition of attack structure becomes a boundary likelihood comparison between two Markov chains.

Highlights are what attract notice. Attention is a psychological measurement of “notice ”. A brief survey of attention psychological background, attention estimation from vision and auditory, and multiple modality attention fusion is presented. We propose two attention models for sports video analysis, namely, the role-based attention model and the multiresolution autoregressive framework. The role-based attention model is based on the perception structure during watching video. This model removes reflection bias among modality salient signals and combines these signals by reflectors. The multiresolution autoregressive framework (MAR) treats salient signals as a group of smooth random processes, which follow a similar trend but are filled with noise. This framework tries to estimate a noise-less signal from these coarse noisy observations by a multiple resolution analysis. Related algorithms are developed, such as event segmentation on a MAR tree and real time event detection. The experiment shows that these attention-based approach can find goal events at a high precision. Moreover, results of MAR-based highlight detection on the final game of FIFA 2002 and 2006 are highly similar to professionally labelled highlights by BBC and FIFA.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: content-based video retrieval, sports video, attention analysis, attack structure, multiresolution autoregressive, markov model
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA76 Computer software
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering > School of Computing Science
Supervisor's Name: Jose, Dr Joemon and Rijsbergen, Prof C.J. Keith
Date of Award: 2008
Depositing User: Dr Reede Ren
Unique ID: glathesis:2008-77
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 29 Jan 2008
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2012 13:15

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