African Animal Trypanosomiasis: Immunochemical Studies of the Trypanocide, Isometamidium Chloride

Mayombo, Thomas Masselle (1990) African Animal Trypanosomiasis: Immunochemical Studies of the Trypanocide, Isometamidium Chloride. MVM(R) thesis, University of Glasgow.

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African animal trypanosomiasis affects about half of the habitable land in Africa hampering improvements in livestock production and mixed agriculture. Though the annual economic losses have been difficult to quantify, the disease is a major economic handicap to the continent and denies its ever-growing population much needed food and livestock products. In this study, chapter one provides a review of African animal trypanosomiasis with regard to its aetiology, hosts, geographical location and economic importance, life cycle and transmission, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and control. Of the various methods which are employed in controlling the disease, chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis remain the most widespread. However, the trypanocidal drugs in use today have been used for over 30 years and problems such as drug resistance appear to be increasingly reported. The remaining chapters deal with various immunochemical studies of isometamidium chloride, the main trypanocidal drug used in the treatment and control of the disease. In chapter two, details of purifying an anti-isometamidium antibody produced in sheep and its use in the quantification of isometaraidium chloride in sera of treated cattle by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are given. The levels of free and bound isometamidium in sera of treated cattle were assessed by employing trichloroacetic acid precipitation and ultrafiltration methods. It was found that, in cattle treated by an intramuscular injection of isometamidium chloride, about 95-99% of the circulating drug is bound to serum proteins and very little if any of it is free and unbound. In chapter three, details of a "Chemiluminescent Western-blot technique" are given. This technique was used in the characterisation of the serum proteins that bind isometamidium. These proteins were shown to be about 122, 140 and 155 kD in cattle and about 300 kD in mice and goat. The major isometamidium binding proteins in cattle appear to be serum albumin. The significance of such bindings in treated animals are discussed. The possibility of developing and using a new technique, "Chemiluminescent dot-blot" for the measurement of isometamidium in sera of treated animals is examined in chapter four. With improvements this new technique may offer a simple, quick, less expensive and sensitive method for the quantification of isometamidium chloride in body fluids under field conditions. Chapter five gives the general conclusions drawn from this study and future areas of immunochemical research of isometamidium chloride are suggested.

Item Type: Thesis (MVM(R))
Qualification Level: Masters
Keywords: Veterinary science, Animal diseases, Parasitology
Date of Award: 1990
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:1990-78056
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2020 15:42
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2020 15:42

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