Towards in silico IBV vaccine design: defining the role of polymorphism in viral attenuation

Grywalski, Maciej (2016) Towards in silico IBV vaccine design: defining the role of polymorphism in viral attenuation. MSc(R) thesis, University of Glasgow.

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The gammacoronavirus, Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), is a respiratory pathogen of chickens. IBV is a constant threat to poultry production as established vaccines are often ineffective against emerging strains. This requires constant and rapid vaccine production by a process of viral attenuation by egg passage, but the essential forces leading to attenuation in the virus have not yet been characterised. Knowledge of these factors will lead to the development of more effective, rationally attenuated, live vaccines and reduction of the mortality and morbidity caused by this pathogen.
M41 CK strain was egg passaged four times many years ago at Houghton Poultry Research Station and stored as M41-CK EP4 (stock virus at The Pirbright Institute since 1992). It was the first egg passage to have its genome pyrosequenced and was therefore used as the baseline reference. The overall aim of this project was to analyse deep sequence data obtained from four IBV isolates (called A, A1, C and D) each originating from the common M41-CK EP4 (ep4) and independently passaged multiple times in embryonated chicken eggs (figure 1.1). Highly polymorphic encoding regions of the IBV genome were then identified which are likely involved in the attenuation process through the formation of independent SNPs and/or SNP clusters. This was then used to direct targeted investigation of SNPs during the attenuation process of the four IBV passages.
A previously generated deep sequence dataset was used as a preliminary map of attenuation for one virulent strain of IBV. This investigation showed the nucleocapsid and spike as two highly polymorphic encoding regions within the IBV genome with the highest proportion of SNPs compared to encoding region size. This analysis then led to more focussed studies of the nucleocapsid and spike encoding region with the ultimate aim of mapping key attenuating regions and nucleotide positions.
The 454 pyrosequencing data and further investigation of nucleocapsid and spike encoding regions have identified the SNPs present at the same nucleotide positions within analysed A, A1, C and D isolates. These SNPs probably play a crucial role in viral attenuation and universal vaccine production but it is not clear if independent SNPs are also involved in loss of virulence. The majority of SNPs accumulated at different nucleotide positions without further continuation in Sanger sequenced egg passages presenting S2 subunit (spike) and nucleocapsid as polymorphic encoding regions which in nature remain highly conserved.

Item Type: Thesis (MSc(R))
Qualification Level: Masters
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Life Sciences
Supervisor's Name: Orton, Dr. Richard and Haydon, Dr. Daniel
Date of Award: 2016
Depositing User: Mr Maciej Grywalski
Unique ID: glathesis:2016-7813
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2017 12:21
Last Modified: 13 Feb 2017 08:52

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