A Study Investigating the Nutritional Effects of Feeding Byproducts to Ruminant Species during Periods of Production Stress

Jones, Francesca Maria (1990) A Study Investigating the Nutritional Effects of Feeding Byproducts to Ruminant Species during Periods of Production Stress. Master of Veterinary Science thesis, University of Glasgow.

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The studies undertaken for this thesis concerned the use of by-products as feeds for farm animals. Sheep and cattle were the species studied under different production systems. The most important aspects of the studies were to determine the nutritive value of the by-products and to describe their relative values when used as feeds in a particular production system. The General Introduction presents the reasons for this study. The continually increasing world population and concerns about the environment and efficiency of production have encouraged reduced wastage and recycling of products. Also the implications for human health are affected by the agricultural products available to the consumer. The methods of feed evaluation and the role of animal nutrition in the maintenance of health and prevention of disease are discussed. Section I reviews the use of sugar beet by-products as animal feeds and describes the origins of the novel by-products under test. The experimental work, using sheep described the nutritive value of the by-products and the use of a limed molassed sugar beet pulp by-product as a feed for lactating ewes rearing twin lambs. The nutritive value of the by-products was determined from digestibility studies. A pelleted, dried by-product containing molassed sugar beet pulp and brewers grains was shown to be a high protein (96.5g DCP/kg DM and high energy 11.6 MJ ME/kg DM feed. A limed molassed sugar beet pulp by-product, when fed to sheep, was shown to contain 60g DCP/kg DM, 11.1 MJ ME/kg DM and a high mineral content including calcium, 13.5, and phosphorus 1.1 (g/kg DM). The final byproduct was the residual extract from sugar beet processing and was a highly digestible, medium energy (10.3 MJ ME) by-product. Limed molassed sugar beet pulp provided an adequate supply of nutrients to ewes during lactation to achieve a mean lamb growth rate of 0.23 kg/day during the first six weeks, for twin lambs. Section II described the origins of the novel by-product, under study, available to farmers within the whisky distilling regions of Scotland. Digestibility and degradability studies described wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS to be a high energy (13.6 MJ ME/kg DM feed with 142g RDP and 249g DCP/kg DM. A production trial using beef suckler cows identified the production benefits of feeding wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS as the sole protein source in comparison with a mixture of two proprietary compound feeds. The nutritional implications of feeding wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS over a long period (4 to 5 months) were exhibited by a loss of appetite and clinical and subclinical symptoms of hypomagnesaemia (mean blood magnesium concentration, 0.32 mmol l-1). A production trial using dairy cows identified the production benefits of feeding wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS as the concentrate source of a basal ration of silage (7 kg DM/day) in contrast to barley malt distillers grains over the total 24 weeks trial period the mean daily milk yield for all cows was 21.3 kg, 3. 63% butterfat and 3.63% milk protein when wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS was the concentrate source. Over the same period, for the same cows the daily milk yield was 21.5 kg, 3.65% butterfat and 3.27% milk protein when malt distillers grains was the concentrate source. No adverse health problems were encountered and the use of fresh wheat distillers SUPERGRAINS as a feed for dairy cows was satisfactory. Section III is concerned with the health of neonatal calves and lambs. The transfer of immunoglobulins was measured using serum immunoglobulin techniques. The calf study involved cows which had been fed different amounts of protein during pregnancy. The results indicated that for higher levels of dietary protein there was an increased colostral whey protein content and increased circulating calf immunoglobulins. This increase was shown to occur for total serum immunoglobulin and for the individual immunoglobulins. The lamb study investigated the use of a proprietary ewe colostrum supplement (Imulam). From the results obtained, using a limited number of twin or triplet lambs, this supplementary product did not appear to provide any additional benefits to feeding either colostrum or milk substitute alone. The experimental work conducted for this thesis aimed to be a direct reflection of intensive farming systems practised in Scotland under normal commercial constraints.

Item Type: Thesis (Master of Veterinary Science)
Qualification Level: Masters
Keywords: Veterinary science
Date of Award: 1990
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:1990-78211
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2020 15:36
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2020 15:36
URI: https://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/78211

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