Gingival and Periodontal Conditions As Related to Menstruation and Endocrine Disorders in the Female

Findlay, John (1958) Gingival and Periodontal Conditions As Related to Menstruation and Endocrine Disorders in the Female. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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An introductory note is followed by a short discourse on the history of periodontal disease, with particular emphasis on the conditions which are discussed in the treatise. The normal clinical and microscopical features of the gingiva and periodontal membrane are summarised and illustrated. A summary of the mechanism of the menstrual cycle is given, this being followed by a classification and summary of the aetiological factors of periodontal disease. The results of the research are given. These are based on the observations noted during the examination and treatment of 250 female patients for periodontal disease. Also taken into account are the microscopical findings of the examination of gingival tissue removed from these patients at various stages in their menstrual cycles. The results of observations were noted after the examination and treatment of nineteen cases of known endocrine disorders. A discussion is included. This part of the thesis is presented in two main sections. The first section deals with the gingival changes which occur during the normal menstrual cycle, and also the gingival changes which take place in endocrine disorders which may influence the ovarian cycle. The changes which occur in the basal cell layer of the gingival epithelium are illustrated and discussed as are the changes which take place in the cornified surface layer of the gingival epithelium. A similar account is given of the blood vessel changes which take place in the gingival connective tissue during the menstrual cycle. It is shown that these changes are similar to the changes which take place in the endometrium and the epithelium of the vagina. Periodontal disease in cases of known endocrine imbalance is discussed and illustrated, and it is recorded that recurrence of periodontal disease in many of these cases is associated with recurrence of the endocrine imbalance reflected in the ovarian cycle. The rate of healing and discomfort following gingivectomy is discussed, and it is shown that rapid healing and little post-operative discomfort can be expected in the proliferative phase, but slow healing and much discomfort follow gingivectomy in the progestational phase of the cycle. Oral ulceration of a cyclical nature is shown to be associated with irritation of the mucosa in the progestational phase of the cycle, while oral ulceration of a more acute nature, apparently associated with emotional stress is discussed. Desquamative gingivitis at the menopause is considered. The second section of the discussion is devoted to the treatment of periodontal disease during the normal menstrual cycle, during pregnancy, at the menopause, and in disorders of the endocrine system. It is stated that, when the complete co-operation of the patient is obtained, periodontal treatment is successful even when the cyclical gingival changes are very obvious. Periodontal treatment in pregnancy is best performed after the second month and before the end of the sixth month of pregnancy since healing is rapid and discomfort minimal during this period of four months. It is considered that periodontal treatment in cases of desquamative gingivitis can be successful when the patient co-operates and all sources of irritation are removed, and the epithelium stimulated to activity with oestrogen. In cases of medically controlled endocrine disorders, periodontal treatment is possible. A summary of the case histories of 100 patients has been included as an appendix. A bibliography appears at the end of each chapter of the treatise.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Dentistry, Endocrinology
Date of Award: 1958
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:1958-79237
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2020 11:25
Last Modified: 05 Mar 2020 11:25

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