The Duplication of Male and Female External Genitalia: With Records of Two Cases

Gilchrist, Thomas (1933) The Duplication of Male and Female External Genitalia: With Records of Two Cases. MD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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1. Duplicated external genitalia in the male and female is a rare condition. 2. The life of the foetus is not affected by the presence of this malformation. 3. Many of the cases in the male are really bifid penis. The homologous condition in the female is excessively rare. 4. There is a tendency in both sexes to arrested development in the parts. 5. In the male two normal scrotal sacs are rare and in the female the labia majora, especially on the outer aspect, are usually better developed. 6. The rarest of all associated defects are double bladder, double anus and double bowel. 7. Transposition of stomach and spleen has been met with in the female case of extensive duplication. Single individuals in which transposition of viscera occurs may he incomplete twins. 8. Family history has been rarely investigated in this Interesting problem. 9. In the author's cases the presence of endocrine disturbance has been noted in near relatives but of more outstanding interest in the family history is the frequent twinning on the maternal and paternal sides. 10. Duplication of external genitalia with associated duplication is possibly due to a branching process of the Primitive Streak. 11. formal development depends on a stable environment, the disturbance of which may result in double malformations. 12. The cause may lie not only in unusual environment but in a particular type of germ cell. This may Influence the course of development from the beginning and control throughout the modified development of altered structural details laid down in the ovum in its earliest stages. 13. Minute examination of the subject of double malformation, fullest examination of the parents and exhaustive search into the clinical and family history are necessary for the elucidation of the mode of origin and cause.

Item Type: Thesis (MD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Medicine, Morphology, Developmental biology
Date of Award: 1933
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:1933-79953
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 03 Mar 2020 10:17
Last Modified: 03 Mar 2020 10:17

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