Pixellated radiation detectors for scientific applications.
PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
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The work in this thesis is focused on characterisation and evaluation of two classes of science grade imaging radiation detectors. The first class is Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The advances in CMOS fabrication technologies over the last four decades allowed MAPS to compete with Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD) in many applications. The technology also provides relatively inexpensive ways to tailor design to suit specific application needs. It is important to understand performance capabilities of new sensor designs through characterisation and optimisation of readout parameters. In this work three MAPSs were characterised.
The first one - HEPAPS4 - designed for charged particle detection, with the potential technology application in the vertex detector for the International Linear Collider. The noise of the sensor was measured to be 35±5 e, which agrees well with simulated data. The dark current was found to be 175 pA/cm2. The SNR performance for minimum ionising particles detection was demonstrated to be 40. The sensor was also evaluated for indirect detection of thermal and fast neutrons using lithium and polyethylene converters. The technology performed well in such an application with an estimated fast neutron detection efficiency of ~0.01%. The second sensor characterised – Vanilla MAPS – was designed to evaluate new techniques for fast readout, small noise and reduced image lag. The system was capable to readout 150 full frames (520x520 pixels) per second; the sensor showed 14±4 e noise and decreased image lag. The dark current was found to be ~50 pA/cm2. The back-thinned version of the sensor demonstrated dramatic improvement in quantum efficiency from 0% to 20% at 220 nm. The third device is parametric sensor eLeNA. It features 14 test structure designed to evaluated noise reduction architectures. The most promising structures showed temporal noise values as low as 6 e and 20 e fixed pattern noise.
Medipix as an example of the second class of imaging detectors - hybrid pixel detectors - was evaluated in two applications. It was used as the core element of the ATLAS radiation background monitoring system. The sensors were covered with neutron converters, which extended the number of radiation types that can be detected. X-ray calibration was performed, showing excellent tolerance of all 18 devices characterised. Detection efficiencies were estimated to be ~1% for thermal and ~0.1% for fast neutrons. The second application of Medipix was mass spectrometry. The detector was place in the focal plane of a prototype mass spectrometer. 2D representation of data allowed focusing correction of the ion beam. The system was capable to detect ions in the range of 5-25 keV. The detector characterisation with broad range of ions (from Cu to Pb) showed very good abundance agreement with table data.
|| CMOS, monolithic active pixel sensor, MAPS, charge-coupled device, sensor, imaging, physics, neutron, Medipix, X-ray, noise, gain, quantum efficiency, dynamic range, photon transfer curve, characterisation, optimisation, radiation detector, LHC, ATLAS, technology application, mass spectrometry, high energy physics, HEP, semiconductor
||Q Science > QC Physics
||College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
||O'Shea, Dr Valentine
|Date of Award:
Mr Dzmitry Maneuski
||Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
||23 Oct 2009
||10 Dec 2012 13:36
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