A consideration of ensiled, high moisture barley and its utilization by ruminants

Dunne, Stephen B. J (1990) A consideration of ensiled, high moisture barley and its utilization by ruminants. MSc(R) thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

Barley is physiologically mature at 30% to 40% moisture; 3 to 4 weeks before traditional harvest time. Acid/formaldehyde additives have been found to reduce rumen degradation of the grain protein and starch, giving a number of advantages in animal production. The effects of a range of additives on the preservation, rumen degradability and feeding value of High Moisture Barley (HMB) were investigated in three experiments; 1. HMB (Atem variety), harvested at 451 g/kg moisture was crimped (bruised, cracked or kibbled) and ensiled without additive or simultaneously treated with one of three additives at various application rates. The treatments and application rates used were: 'Graintona Plus' (8 1/t & 4 1/t) , 'Sylade 2' (8 1/t & 4 1/t) and Cane Molasses (6.4 1/t). Each of these treatments was ensiled in triplicate 4 kg laboratory pot silos and five small (0.3 kg) pH pots. Duplicate 150 kg silos were used for all ensilations apart from the untreated grain. The untreated grain, the majority of which was not ensiled, was frozen until required. Treatments involving molasses, 'Forager' Innoculant, 'Add-Safe' and amylase were prepared from the untreated grain and ensiled in triplicate 4 kg pot silos only. Graintona and Sylade reduced fermentation in the silo, producing low levels of lactic and acetic acids, together with the highest pH values. Unlike the other additive treatments, they allowed a greater mould development. Sylade, together with the molasses treatments, gave high ethanol contents. 2. Graintona, Sylade and molasses were used for in saccc degradability studies. The rumen degradability of barley nitrogen, organic matter and protein-free organic matter (mostly starch), was measured using the nylon bag technique in three mature, rumen fistulated sheep. Graintona and Sylade, used at 8 1/t, significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the degradability of barley nitrogen, organic matter and protein-free organic matter. The instantaneous loss from the bags was most affected and the reduction diminished with increasing incubation time. 3. A feeding trial of incomplete block design, using ten individually penned yearling sheep, was used to determine the effect on hay intake and diet digestibility of formaldehyde-treated grain. The trial involved three 20-day periods. During days 1-10, the sheep (average live weight 34.5 kg) received hay ad libitum and 700 g/day (fresh weight) of HMB. Both treatment levels of Graintona and Sylade were used for the individual meals, together with molasses or thawed, untreated HMB. The six meals were distributed according to the experimental design and fed once per day at 08:45. A mineral supplement of 15 g/day was added to each meal. Hay and water were always available. During days 10-20, hay was restricted to 500 g/day (fresh weight) and a total faecal collection was made during the last three days. The HMB meals were consumed rapidly, in all cases within one hour. The sheep remained healthy throughout the trial, no incidence of acidosis occurred and each one made live weight gains. Under the conditions used in this experiment, there was no significant effect of treatment on hay intake or whole diet organic matter digestibility. It is suggested that with moderate barley intakes, rumen conditions on the control diet cannot have changed significantly from normal and in this growing, fattening trial, an effect of formaldehyde protection of barley nitrogen and protein-free organic matter on hay intake was not observed. The overall results of the experiments suggest that HMB can be ensiled successfully and can be used as a valuable source of 'home-grown' feed. Modifications of the rumen environment by formaldehyde treatment of barley would be most beneficial for animals in commercial, high production systems.

Item Type: Thesis (MSc(R))
Qualification Level: Masters
Additional Information: Adviser: N W Offer
Keywords: Animal sciences
Date of Award: 1990
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:1990-72233
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 24 May 2019 15:12
Last Modified: 24 May 2019 15:12
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/72233

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