Musculoskeletal ultrasound scanning of some canine limb joints: A comparison of scanning techniques

Marinou, Katerina (2001) Musculoskeletal ultrasound scanning of some canine limb joints: A comparison of scanning techniques. MVM(R) thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

In the past diagnostic ultrasound was a relatively under utilised technique in the particular field of musculoskeletal imaging. This can be mainly attributed to the low frequency transducers available at that time which were inadequate for imaging of superficial structures because of their limited resolution. The presence of bones in the joint regions also inhibited the imaging of small and physically slight structures due to the limited access through small acoustic windows and non through transmission of sound waves at bony surfaces. More recent developments in transducer technology have managed to overcome many of the problems by the construction of ultra high frequency probes with conveniently sized footprints. Their increased resolution has produced considerably better image quality, which has led to the detection of many anatomical structures, that had not been readily visible in the past. In addition the advanced postprocessing software of the new generation of ultrasound scanners has resulted in the ability to produce panoramic images over considerable lengths of the body surface displaying the topography of many of the underlying structures leading to the development of the extended field of view imaging modality. Reconstructed three dimensional presentations of various organs or body areas on screen constitutes a very recent capability that has the potential of detecting abnormalities and placing them in their anatomical context. The aim of this study has been to present what has been accomplished to date with ultrasound in the small animal musculoskeletal field using conventional ultrasonographic technology. Using the regions of the shoulder, stifle and tarsal joint of live dogs, the aim was to investigate the potential of using very high frequency transducers, extended field of view imaging and three dimensional technology with a view of identifying the anatomical structures involved and also conduct repeated individual measurements with the use of specific anatomical landmarks to see if an increase in consistency of results could be achieved. Normal adult Greyhound cadavers were initially used with a colour marker echocontrast agent to verify that structures imaged were indeed the real anatomical structures, but subsequent studies were on live normal Greyhounds and some clinical cases with lameness problems. The results of the project proved that the quality of images obtained with the use of a 16 and a 22 MHz transducers were superior to the ones acquired by conventional scanning so that identification of previously difficult structures was successfully carried out on screen. Furthermore, the extended field of view modality was a contributor to solving problems of topography and repeated identification of landmarks, whereas three dimensional imaging revealed in some areas the component structures in multiplanar detail. The conducting of repeated individual measurements of some anatomical structures with conventional ultrasound has proved that there was poor consistency, so that it would be difficult to estimate differences in size that could lead to diagnosis of various physiological or pathologic conditions. The use of the ultra high frequency transducers did not contribute to the accuracy, because the problems concerning the anglulation of the transducer and the narrow acoustic window of the joint remained. Measurements obtained with the use of the extended field of view modality when calling up images of specific parts of the structure proved to be more accurate and could offer a future potential for the monitoring of pathologic and healing processes. Three dimensional imaging appears as an exciting and most promising technique that could offer accuracy to measurements but needs to be further investigated.

Item Type: Thesis (MVM(R))
Qualification Level: Masters
Additional Information: Adviser: J S Boyd
Keywords: Veterinary science
Date of Award: 2001
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:2001-73896
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 14 Jun 2019 08:56
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2019 08:56
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/73896

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