Gilmartin, Paul
(2016)
Connected Hopf algebras of finite GelfandKirillov dimension.
PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
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Abstract
Following the seminal work of Zhuang, connected Hopf algebras of finite GKdimension over algebraically closed fields of characteristic zero have been the subject of several recent papers. This thesis is concerned with continuing this line of research and promoting connected Hopf algebras as a natural, intricate and interesting class of algebras.
We begin by discussing the theory of connected Hopf algebras which are either commutative or cocommutative, and then proceed to review the modern theory of arbitrary connected Hopf algebras of finite GKdimension initiated by Zhuang.
We next focus on the (left) coideal subalgebras of connected Hopf algebras of finite GKdimension. They are shown to be deformations of commutative polynomial algebras. A number of homological properties follow immediately from this fact. Further properties are described, examples are considered and invariants are constructed.
A connected Hopf algebra is said to be "primitively thick" if the difference between its GKdimension and the vectorspace dimension of its primitive space is precisely one . Building on the results of Wang, Zhang and Zhuang,, we describe a method of constructing such a Hopf algebra, and as a result obtain a host of new examples of such objects. Moreover, we prove that such a Hopf algebra can never be isomorphic to the enveloping algebra of a semisimple Lie algebra, nor can a semisimple Lie algebra appear as its primitive space.
It has been asked in the literature whether connected Hopf algebras of finite GKdimension are always isomorphic as algebras to enveloping algebras of Lie algebras. We provide a negative answer to this question by constructing a counterexample of GKdimension 5.
Substantial progress was made in determining the order of the antipode of a finite dimensional pointed Hopf algebra by Taft and Wilson in the 1970s. Our final main result is to show that the proof of their result can be generalised to give an analogous result for arbitrary pointed Hopf algebras.
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