Explicit and implicit motivation towards outbound tourism: a study of Saudi tourists.
PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
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In this thesis, the researcher investigates the implicit and other motivations for Saudi outbound tourism. The Saudi Arabian outbound tourism market is recognised as one of the biggest tourism expenditure. Despite this, research relating to the motivations for Saudi outbound tourism, especially the implicit motives is sparse. It is in response to this that the researcher carried out this study and additionally, examined the influence of Saudi culture, demographic variables and tourists motivations on destination selection.
This study employs a model entitled “Integration Model of Explicit and Implicit Motives” of Push and Pull Factors developed by the researcher to examine the explicit and implicit motives of Saudi outbound tourism. Data was collected from 486 Saudi outbound tourists (81% of the total sample) who travelled to three destinations (Bahrain, Egypt and France). Factor analyses were conducted to identify tourism motivation and cultural factors of Saudi society. Pearson correlation was used to find the relationship between push and pull factors of tourism motivation (explicit and implicit) and the relationship between Saudi culture and push and pull factors of tourism motivation (explicit and implicit).
A series of ANOVA and T-tests were employed to examine the influence of demographic variables on tourism motivations. Logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression were used to find out the influence of tourism motivations, cultural factors and demographic variables on destination selection.
The results of the factor analyses of explicit motives in this study identified seven push factors and four pull factors. The six push factors (intrinsic desire) extracted were: 'escape', 'prestige', 'social and sport', 'experience and excitement', 'enjoying natural resources', 'knowledge' and 'relaxation'. The four pull factors (attributes of destination) identified as underlying dimensions were 'expenditure', 'outdoor activities', 'natural and historical' and 'weather and environment'. In relation to the implicit motives, the factor analysis identified two push factors and three pull factors. The push factors were 'alcohol and sex desires' and 'fun and freedom desires'. On the other hand, the pull factors were 'alcohol and sex attractions', 'drugs attraction' and 'fun and freedom attractions'.
The factor analysis of cultural items resulted in seven underlying domains, that include 'uncertainty avoidance', 'individualism', 'differences of groups in society (power distance)', 'social interdependence (collectivism)', 'helping others (collectivism)', 'inequalities and hierarchy (power distance)' and 'family relationship (collectivism)'. The Pearson's correlation analyses found significant correlations between the majority of push and pull dimensions in both explicit and implicit motives in all destinations. Moreover, the Pearson's correlation revealed a significant correlation between tourism motivations (push and pull factors), in both explicit and implicit motives, with cultural factors in all destinations under study (Bahrain, Egypt and France).
The results of ANOVA and T-tests indicate significant differences in tourist's motivations according to the differences in demographic variables of tourists (age, income education, gender and martial statues). In other words, the demographic variables have an influence on tourism motivations. The findings of logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression indicate that the tourism motivations, cultural factors and demographic variables have an influence on destination selection.
Moreover, the researcher carried out 25 interviewees This was in order to validate the results that were obtained from the quantitative approach regarding to tourism motivation of Saudi outbound tourists (explicit and implicit), cultural factors that describe the Saudi society, and to confirm the usefulness of using the third person technique to investigate sensitive issues. The results obtained from the interviews are similar to the results obtained from the questionnaires (quantitative approach). In relation to the usefulness of using the third person technique in investigating sensitive issues, the result of the interviews revealed that the third person technique has proved as one of the acceptable technique to get information about sensitive issues especially with countries that have values grounded on their religious heritage.
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