Bone health in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Elmantaser, Musab Elmabrouk M. (2013) Bone health in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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In chapter 1, bone structure, bone growth and development, osteoporosis in children and skeletal morbidities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are discussed. After that, the mechanostat and the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on bone health are considered. Finally, I examine diagnostic approaches to assess the musculoskeletal system.
In chapter 2, the incidence and risk factors for skeletal morbidity in ALL children are determined. The medical records of all (n,186, male,110) children presenting with ALL between 1997 and 2007 and treated on UKALL97, UKALL97/01 or UKALL2003 were studied. Skeletal morbidity included musculoskeletal pain (MSP), fractures and osteonecrosis (ON). MSP was classified as any event of limb pain, muscle pain, joint symptoms or back pain that required radiological examination. Fractures and ON were confirmed by X-rays and MRI respectively. We found that skeletal morbidity, presenting as MSP, fractures or ON were reported in 88(47%) children of whom 56(63%) were boys. Of 88 children, 49(55%), 27(30%) and 18(20%) had MSP, fracture(s) or ON, respectively. Six (7%) had both fractures and ON. The median(10th,90thcentiles) age at diagnosis of ALL children without skeletal morbidity was 3.9years(1.4,12), which was lower than in those with skeletal morbidity at 8.2years(2.2,14.3) (p<0.00001,95%CI:1.7,4.4). Children with ALL diagnosed over 8years of age were at increased risk of developing fracture(s) (p=0.01,odds ratio(OR)=2.9,95%CI:1.3,6.5), whereas the risk of ON was higher in those who were diagnosed after 9years of age (p<0.0001,OR=15,95%CI:4.1,54.4). There was no gender-difference in the incidence of skeletal morbidity. Children who received dexamethasone had a higher incidence of skeletal morbidity than those who were treated with prednisolone (p=0.027,OR=2.6,95%CI:1.1,5.9). We concluded that the occurrence of skeletal morbidity in ALL children may be influenced by age and the type of glucocorticoids (GCs). These findings may facilitate the development of effective bone protective intervention.
In chapter 3, the aim is to investigate the influence of physical activity, age and mineral homeostasis over the first 12months of chemotherapy on subsequent skeletal morbidity. We reviewed 56 children who presented with ALL between 2003 and 2007 and treated only on
UKALL2003. The number of in-patient days over the first 12months of chemotherapy was collected and used as a surrogate marker of inactivity and lack of well-being. Data for serum calcium (Ca), phosphate (Pho), magnesium (Mg) and albumin were also collected over this period. Skeletal morbidity was defined as any episode MSP or fractures. We found that the median duration of in-patient days over the first 12months of treatment in children with no skeletal morbidity was 58days(40,100), whereas the median number of in-patient days during the first 12months in those children with any skeletal morbidity, MSP only or fractures only was 83days(54,131), 81days(52,119) and 91days(59,158), respectively (p=0.003). Children with skeletal morbidity and fractures particularly had lower levels of serum Ca, Mg and Pho compared with those without skeletal morbidity over the first 12 months of chemotherapy. There was a higher risk of skeletal morbidity in those who were diagnosed after the age of 8years (p=0.001,OR=16,CI:3,80). Multiple regression analysis showed that the incidence of skeletal morbidity only had a significant independent association with age at diagnosis (p=0.001) and the number of inpatient days (p=0.03) over the first 12months (r=23). All children who were diagnosed after the age of 8years with an inpatient stay of greater than 75 days in the first 12 months of the chemotherapy (n,14) had some form of skeletal morbidity (OR=64). The conclusion was that the incidence of skeletal morbidity in children receiving chemotherapy for UKALL2003 is associated with a higher likelihood of being older and having longer periods of inpatient stay. The close link between age and changes in bone mineral status may be one explanation for the increased bone morbidity in ALL children
In chapter 4, the effects of two WBV regimens on endocrine status, muscle function and markers of bone turnover are compared. We recruited 10adult men with a median age of 33years(29,49), who were randomly assigned to stand on the Galileo platform (GP) (frequency (f)=18-22Hz, peak to peak displacement (D)=4mm, peak acceleration (apeak) =2.6-3.8g) or Juvent1000 (f=32-37Hz, 0.085mm,0.3g) platform (JP) three times/week for a period of eight weeks. The measurements were performed at five time points (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4) and performed in a four week period of run-in (No WBV), eight weeks of WBV and a four-week period of washout (No WBV). The measurements included anthropometries, body composition measured by Tanita, muscle function measured by Leonardo mechanography and biochemical markers of endocrine status and bone turnover. The immediate term effect of WBV at 22Hz was associated with an increase in serum growth hormone (GH), increasing
from 0.07μg/l(0.04,0.69) to 0.52μg/l(0.06,2.4) (p=0.06),0.63μg/l(0.1,1.18)(p=0.03) ,0.21μg/l (0.07,0.65) (p=0.2) at 5minutes, 20minutes and 60minutes after WBV, respectively in the GP group. The immediate term effect of GP at 18Hz was associated with a reduction in serum cortisol from 316nmol/l (247,442) at 60minutes pre-WBV to 173nmol/l(123,245)(p=0.01), 165nmol/l(139,276)(p=0.02) and 198nmol/l(106,294)(p=0.04) at 5minutes, 20minutes and 60minutes post-WBV, respectively. At 22 Hz, GP was associated with a reduction in serum cortisol from 269nmol/l(115,323) at 60minutes before WBV to 214nmol/l(139,394)(p=0.5), 200nmol/l(125,337)(p=0.08) and 181nmol/l(104,306)(p=0.04) at 5minutes, 20minutes and 60minutes post-WBV, respectively. Median serum cortisol decreased after eight weeks of WBV from 333nmol/l(242,445) to 270nmol/l(115,323)(p=0.04). Median serum of the carboxy-terminal telopeptide (CTX, bore resorption marker) reduced significantly after eight weeks of WBV from 0.42ng/ml(0.29,0.90) to 0.29ng/ml(0.18,0.44)(p=0.03). None of these changes were observed in the JP group. Therefore, WBV at a certain magnitude can stimulate GH secretion, reduce circulating cortisol and reduce bone resorption. These effects are independent of clear changes in muscle function and depend on the type of WBV that is administered.
In chapter 5, the effect of WBV using GP on the bone health of children receiving chemotherapy for ALL was assessed. We recruited 16children with ALL with a median age of 7.8years(5-13.8; 9males), who were randomized either to receive side-alternating WBV (f=16-20Hz,D=2mm, apeak =1-1.6g)(n,9) or to stand on a still platform as a control group (n,7) for 9minutes, once/week for four months. Measurements were performed at baseline, two-month and four-month assessing bone health (DXA and p.QCT), body composition and muscle function by imaging and biochemical assessment. DXA BMC data were corrected for bone area and presented as BMC z-score. We found that the median compliance rate measured as a ratio of actual completed minutes and expected minutes of WBV was 55%(17,100). The median percentage change of total body BMC z score in the WBV group from baseline to four months dropped by 10%(-25,10)(p=0.1), whereas it was 87%(-203,4)(p=0.07) in the control group. The median lumbar spine BMC z-score (L2-L4) in the WBV group was -0.4(-1.3,0.3) and -0.3(-1.4,1.5) at baseline and four months, whereas the respective data in the control group were 0.04(-0.6,2.4) and -0.1(-1.1,1), respectively. The median percentage change in LS-BMC z-score declined from baseline to four-month by19%(-349,365)(p=0.1)
and 75%(-1016,178)(p=0.1) in the WBV and control groups, respectively. We concluded that WBV is tolerated by children receiving chemotherapy. WBV might improve bone health in ALL children receiving chemotherapy
Chapter 6 summarises the findings of this thesis, discussing recommendations for improving bone health in ALL children and exploring weaknesses inherent in registry data and limitation. To sum up exercise in ALL children may be most effective if started at the time of diagnosis in parallel with chemotherapy but user acceptability of WBV may not be high at this point. Also, where sufficient data are available, there is a need to compare outcomes between WBV and conventional exercise for improvement in children‟ bone health in order to find the optimal dose. Whereas in this thesis, the effect of WBV on the musculoskeletal and endocrine systems was assessed, for any further work, also it may be useful to consider the interactive effect of nutritional optimisation and Mg supplementation on bone health during chemotherapy.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Subjects: R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics > RJ101 Child Health. Child health services
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Supervisor's Name: Ahmed, Prof. Syed Faisal
Date of Award: 2013
Depositing User: Dr Musab Elmantaser
Unique ID: glathesis:2013-4447
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 09 Jul 2013 15:16
Last Modified: 09 Dec 2015 13:19

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