Thermo-dynamical measurements for ATLAS Inner Detector (evaporative cooling system)

Bitadze, Alexander (2014) Thermo-dynamical measurements for ATLAS Inner Detector (evaporative cooling system). PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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During the construction, installation and initial operation of the Evaporative
Cooling System for the ATLAS Inner Detector SCT Barrel Sub-detector, some
performance characteristics were observed to be inconsistent with the original design
specifications, therefore the assumptions made in the ATLAS Inner Detector
TDR were revisited. The main concern arose because of unexpected pressure
drops in the piping system from the end of the detector structure to the distribution
racks. The author of this theses made a series of measurements of these
pressure drops and the thermal behavior of SCT-Barrel cooling Stave. Tests were
performed on the installed detector in the pit, and using a specially assembled
full scale replica in the SR1 laboratory at CERN. This test setup has been used
to perform extensive tests of the cooling performance of the system including
measurements of pressure drops in different parts of system, studies of the thermal
profile along the stave pipe for different running conditions / parameters and
coolant flow measurements in the system. The pressure drops in the system and
the associated temperatures in the barrel cooling loops have been studied as a
function of the system variables, for example; input liquid pressure, vapour back
pressure, module power load and input liquid temperature. Measurements were
performed with 10, 11, 12, 13 barabs inlet liquid pressure in system, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0,
2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 barabs vapour back pressure in system, and 0 W, 3 W, 6 W,
9 W, 10.5W power applied per silicon module. The measurements clearly show
that the cooling system can not achieve the design evaporation temperature of -25C in every part of the detector (SCT Barrel loops) in case of 13 barabs nominal inlet liquid pressure, 1.2 barabs minimum possible back pressure and 6W nominal
power per SCT Barrel silicon module and especially at the end of the ATLAS ID
operation period when modules will work on full power of 10.5 W. This will lead
to the problem of thermal run-away of the ATLAS SCT, especially near the end
of the operational period after significant radiation exposure has occurred. The
LHC luminosity profile, depletion voltage and leakage current values and the total
power dissipated from the modules were revised. Thermal runaway limits for the
ATLAS SCT sub-detector were also revised. Results show that coolants evaporation
temperature necessary for the sub-detector's safe operation over the full
lifetime (10 years) is -15C with a safety factor of 2. Laboratory measurements
clearly show that the cooling system can not achieve even this necessary evaporation
temperature of -15C. It is now impossible to make mechanical modifications
to the cooling system, for example; changing the diameter of the cooling pipes, or
the thermal performance of the in-system heat exchanger or reducing the vapour
back pressure. It was therefore decided to investigate changes to the cooling
fluid and to test mixtures of Hexafluoroethane (R116) C2F6 and Octafluoropropane(R218) C3F8 at differing ratios instead of just pure C3F8 coolant presently used.
For this purpose, a new "blending" machine was assembled in the SR1 laboratory,
with a new device an "on-line acoustic flow meter and fluorocarbon coolant
mixture analyzer" (Sonar Analyzer) attached to it. The Machines were connected
to the already existing laboratory test station and new extensive tests were performed
to investigate different proportion of C3F8/C2F6 blends to find the mixture
ratio which resulted in the best operational performance as measured by: the
temperature distribution, pressure drops and
flow parameters over the system,
to ensure best cooling performance of SCT Barrel cooling loops for long term
ATLAS SCT operation. Measurements were performed with different percentage
of C2F6 (1%, 2%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 25%) coolant in the C3F8/C2F6 mixture,
for different power (0 W, 3 W, 6 W, 9 W, 10.5W) applied to dummy modules on the SCT cooling stave, with 13 barabs inlet liquid pressure and for different vapour back pressures (1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 barabs) in the system.
Results prove that with 25% of C2F6 in the blend mixture, it is possible to
lower the evaporation temperature by ~10C in the case of nominal operation
parameters of the system. The ATLAS Inner Detector Evaporative Cooling System
can therefore reach the necessary evaporation temperature and therefore can
guarantee thermal stability of the SCT, even at the end of the operation period.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: CERN, LHC, ATLAS, Inner Detector, Evaporative cooling, Hexafluoroethane (R116), C2F6, Octafluoropropane(R218),C3F8, pressure drops, thermal profile, blend mixtures, Sonar analyses, ultrasonic.
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QC Physics
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Supervisor's Name: Bates, Dr Richard and Buttar, Prof Craig
Date of Award: 2014
Depositing User: Dr Alexander Bitadze
Unique ID: glathesis:2014-5186
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 26 Jun 2014 09:04
Last Modified: 01 Jul 2014 11:30

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