New fault-tolerant routing algorithms for k-ary n-cube networks

Al-Sadi, Jehad (2002) New fault-tolerant routing algorithms for k-ary n-cube networks. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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The interconnection network is one of the most crucial components in a multicomputer as it greatly influences the overall system performance. Networks belonging to the family of k-ary n-cubes (e.g., tori and hypercubes) have been widely adopted in practical machines due to their desirable properties, including a low diameter, symmetry, regularity, and ability to exploit communication locality found in many real-world parallel applications. A routing algorithm specifies how a message selects a path to cross from source to destination, and has great impact on network performance. Routing in fault-free networks has been extensively studied in the past. As the network size scales up the probability of processor and link failure also increases. It is therefore essential to design fault-tolerant routing algorithms that allow messages to reach their destinations even in the presence of faulty components (links and nodes). Although many fault-tolerant routing algorithms have been proposed for common multicomputer networks, e.g. hypercubes and meshes, little research has been devoted to developing fault-tolerant routing for well-known versions of k-ary n-cubes, such as 2 and 3- dimensional tori. Previous work on fault-tolerant routing has focused on designing algorithms with strict conditions imposed on the number of faulty components (nodes and links) or their locations in the network. Most existing fault-tolerant routing algorithms have assumed that a node knows either only the status of its neighbours (such a model is called local-information-based) or the status of all nodes (global-information-based). The main challenge is to devise a simple and efficient way of representing limited global fault information that allows optimal or near-optimal fault-tolerant routing. This thesis proposes two new limited-global-information-based fault-tolerant routing algorithms for k-ary n-cubes, namely the unsafety vectors and probability vectors algorithms. While the first algorithm uses a deterministic approach, which has been widely employed by other existing algorithms, the second algorithm is the first that uses probability-based fault- tolerant routing. These two algorithms have two important advantages over those already existing in the relevant literature. Both algorithms ensure fault-tolerance under relaxed assumptions, regarding the number of faulty components and their locations in the network. Furthermore, the new algorithms are more general in that they can easily be adapted to different topologies, including those that belong to the family of k-ary n-cubes (e.g. tori and hypercubes) and those that do not (e.g., generalised hypercubes and meshes). Since very little work has considered fault-tolerant routing in k-ary n-cubes, this study compares the relative performance merits of the two proposed algorithms, the unsafety and probability vectors, on these networks. The results reveal that for practical number of faulty nodes, both algorithms achieve good performance levels. However, the probability vectors algorithm has the advantage of being simpler to implement. Since previous research has focused mostly on the hypercube, this study adapts the new algorithms to the hypercube in order to conduct a comparative study against the recently proposed safety vectors algorithm. Results from extensive simulation experiments demonstrate that our algorithms exhibit superior performance in terms of reachability (chances of a message reaching its destination), deviation from optimality (average difference between minimum distance and actual routing distance), and looping (chances of a message continuously looping in the network without reaching destination) to the safety vectors.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Computer science
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering > School of Computing Science
Supervisor's Name: Ould-Khaoua, Professor Mohamed
Date of Award: 2002
Depositing User: Enlighten Team
Unique ID: glathesis:2002-71247
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 10 May 2019 10:49
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2022 09:50
Thesis DOI: 10.5525/gla.thesis.71247

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