Myeloid precursors, osteoclastogenesis, and Spondyloarthropathies

Ansalone, Cecilia (2016) Myeloid precursors, osteoclastogenesis, and Spondyloarthropathies. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Spondyloarthropathies (or Spondyloarthritides; SpAs) are a group of heterogeneous but genetically related inflammatory disorders in which ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is considered the prototypic form. Among the genes associated with AS, HLA-B27 allele has the strongest association although the cause is still not clear. Rats transgenic for the human HLA-B27 gene (B27 rats) develop a systemic inflammation mirroring the human SpA symptoms and thus provide a useful model to study the contribution of this MHC class I molecule in the disease development. Of particular interest was the observation of absence of arthritis in B27 rats grown in germ-free conditions and a recent theory suggests that microbial dysbiosis and gut inflammation might play a key role in initiating the HLA-B27-associated diseases. Studies in our laboratory have previously demonstrated that HLA-B27 expression alters the development of the myeloid compartment within the bone marrow (BM) in B27 rat and causes loss of a specific dendritic cell (DC) population involved in self-tolerance mechanisms within the gut. The aim of this thesis was to further analyse the myeloid compartment in B27 rats with a particular focus on the osteoclast progenitors and the bone phenotype and to link this to the gut inflammation. In addition, translational studies analysed peripheral monocyte/pre-osteoclasts in AS patients and teased apart the role of cytokines in in vitro human osteoclast differentiation.
To understand the dynamics of the myeloid/monocyte compartment within the B27-associated inflammation, monocytes within the bloodstream and BM of B27 rats were characterised via flow cytometry and their ability to differentiate into osteoclast was assessed in vitro. Moreover, an antibiotic regime was used to reduce the B27 ileitis and to evaluate whether this could affect the migration, the phenotype, and the osteoclastogenic potential of B27 monocytes.
B27 animals display a systemic and central increase of “inflammatory” CD43low MOs, which are the main contributors to osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Antibiotic treatment reduced ileitis and also reverted the B27 monocyte phenotype. This was also associated with the reduction of the previous described TNFα-enhancement of osteoclast differentiation from B27 BM precursors. These evidences support the idea that in genetically susceptible individuals inflammation in the gut might influence the myeloid compartment within the BM; in other terms, pre-emptively educate precursor cells to acquire specific phenotype end functions after being recruited into the tissue. This might explain the enhanced differentiation of osteoclast from B27 BM progenitors and thus the HLA-B27-associated bone loss. The data shown in this thesis suggest a link between the immunity within the gut and BM haematopoiesis. This provides an attractive and novel research prospective that could help not only to increase the understanding of the HLA-B27-associated aetiopathogenesis but also to unravel the cellular crosstalk that allows the mucosal immunity to program central cell differentiation.
Human translational studies on monocyte subsets, cytokines and cytokine network in AS osteoclastogenesis evidenced altered osteoclast differentiation in the presence of IL-22 although no differences in the phenotype and functions of circulating CD14+ monocytes were observed. In addition, studies on the role of TNFα and TNFRs showed a dual role of this inflammatory cytokine in the human OC differentiation. In particular, the activation of TNFR1 in monocytes in early osteoclastogenesis inhibits OC differentiation while TNFα-biasing for TNFR2 on osteoclast precursors mediates the osteoclastogenic effect. Whether similar mechanisms are involved in the TNFα-mediated joint destruction in human rheumatic diseases needs further investigations. This could contribute to the development of novel and more specific anti-TNFα agents for the treatment of bone erosion. In conclusion, taken together my studies support the idea of a crosstalk between the periphery and the central system during the inflammatory response and provide new insights to the mechanisms behind the enhancement of osteoclastogenesis in B27-associated disorders.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Monocytes, Osteoclasts, Spondyloarthropathies
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
Colleges/Schools: College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation > Immunology
Funder's Name: European Commission (EC)
Supervisor's Name: Goodyear, Dr Carl S.
Date of Award: 2016
Embargo Date: 13 September 2019
Depositing User: Dr Cecilia Ansalone
Unique ID: glathesis:2016-7578
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 14 Sep 2016 13:54
Last Modified: 11 Oct 2016 07:40

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