Experimental studies on shock wave interactions with flexible surfaces and development of flow diagnostic tools

Li, Guoshuai (2020) Experimental studies on shock wave interactions with flexible surfaces and development of flow diagnostic tools. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Nowadays, light-weight composite materials have increasingly used for high-speed flight vehicles to improve their performance and efficiency. At supersonic speed, sonic fatigue, panel flutter, severe instabilities, and even catastrophic structural failure would occur due to the shock wave impingement on several flexible components of a given structural system either internally or externally. Therefore, investigation on shock wave interaction with flexible surfaces is crucial for the safety and performance of high-speed flight vehicles. This work aims to investigate the mechanism of shock wave interaction with flexible surfaces with and without the presence of the boundary layer. The first part involves the shock wave generated by supersonic starting jets interaction with flexible surfaces and the other one focuses on shock wave and boundary layer interaction (SBLI) over flexible surfaces.
A novel miniature and cost-effective shock tube driven by detonation transmission tubing was designed and manufactured to simulate the supersonic starting jet and investigate the interaction of a supersonic starting jet with flexible surfaces. To investigate the characterization of this novel type shock tube, the pressure-time measurement in the driven section and the time-resolved shadowgraph were performed. The result shows that the flow structure from the open end of the shock tube driven by detonation transmission tubing agrees with that of conventional compressed-gas driven shock tubes. Moreover, this novel type of shock tube has good repeatability of less than 3% with a Mach number range of 1.29-1.58 when the weight of the NONEL explosive mixture varies from 3.6mg to 12.6mg.
An unsteady background oriented schlieren (BOS) measurement system and a sprayable Polymer-Ceramic unsteady pressure sensitive paint (PC-PSP) system were developed. The preliminary BOS result in a supersonic wind tunnel shows that the sensitivity of the BOS system is good enough to visualize weak density variations caused by expansion waves, boundary layer, and weak oblique shocks. Additionally, compared with the commercial PC-PSP from Innovative Scientific Solutions Incorporated (ISSI), the in-house developed unsteady PSP system has higher pressure sensitivity, lower temperature sensitivity, and photo-degradation rate.
To identify the shock movement, distortion and unsteadiness during the processes of the supersonic starting jet impingement and shock wave boundary layer interaction (SBLI) over flexible surfaces, an image processing scheme involving background subtraction in the frequency domain, filtering, resampling, edge detection, adaptive threshold, contour detection, feature extraction, and fitting was proposed and applied to process shadowgraph and schlieren sequences automatically. A large shadowgraph data set characterized by low signal to noise ratio (SNR) and small spatial resolution (312×260-pixel), was used to validate the proposed scheme. The result proves that the aforementioned image processing scheme can detect, track, localize, and fit shock waves in a subpixel accuracy.
The mechanism of the interaction between the initial shock wave from a supersonic starting jet and flexible surfaces was investigated based on a square shock tube driven by detonation transmitting tube. Compared with that of the solid plate case, flexible surfaces can delay the shock reflection process because of the flexible panel deformation generated by the pressure difference between the top and the bottom. The delay time is around 8µs in the case of 0.1mm thick flexible surface, whereas it declines to around 4µs in the case of 0.3mm thick flexible surface because of the lower flexibility and deformation magnitude. However, interestingly, the propagation velocity of the reflected shock wave is basically the same for the solid plate and flexible panels, which means the flexible surface doesn’t reduce the strength of the reflection wave, although it delays its propagation. Also, there is not an apparent difference in the velocity of the reflected shock wave in the case of different incident shock Mach numbers when Ms varying from 1.22 to 1.54. These experimental results from this study are useful for validating numerical codes that are used for understanding fluid-structure interaction processes.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Shock wave, flexible surfaces, schlieren, PSP, BOS, shock detection.
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TL Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Autonomous Systems and Connectivity
Supervisor's Name: Kontis, Professor Konstantinos
Date of Award: 2020
Depositing User: Mr. GUOSHUAI LI
Unique ID: glathesis:2020-81703
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2020 13:32
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2022 13:23
Thesis DOI: 10.5525/gla.thesis.81703
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/81703
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