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The management of educational change in Pakistani educational institutions

Razzaq, Jamila (2012) The management of educational change in Pakistani educational institutions. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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Abstract

This research study aims to explore the process of educational change management in Pakistan through the experiences and views of institution heads and teachers to look at the reality of an externally mandated reform at the school level. Beyond contextualising the process of educational change at the school level within the Pakistani education system, the study aims to contextualise this process in the global perspective by delineating an emergent model of educational change management for Pakistani education system. A change initiative to reform the national curriculum and assessment system for public examinations was investigated to provide the participants of the study a point of reference to express their opinions and to reflect upon and describe their experiences. This particular change initiative was part of a comprehensive reform programme called Education Sector Reform (ESR) programme initiated in 2002. To define the selection of institutions and the sample of teachers within those institutions, the curriculum and assessment system change at Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) level in the subject areas of English, Urdu and Pakistan Studies was focused in the institutions affiliated with the examination board of Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (FBISE). Beyond affiliation with FBISE, the selection of twenty institutions was made in order to balance a number of factors as the ownership, attraction for admissions, gender representation and administrative structures. The data collection was done at three stages through three research tools. At the first stage, the institution heads of the selected institutions were included in the research through semi-structured interviews. At the second stage an exploratory questionnaire, which was based on the interview data and the related literature, was given to twenty teachers in ten of the institutions included in the study. The data from this exploratory questionnaire was used to develop a structured questionnaire for the third phase of the research, which was given to 124 teachers in the twenty institutions included in the study. The sample was balanced for the subject areas and the length of teaching experience of the participants. The analysis of data from both institution heads and teachers has converged on three overarching themes of student learning and assessment, issues related to the role of teachers in the process of change and the management of the reform process. In summary, participating institution heads and teachers are positive about the need and purpose of the reform; they also consider it good for student learning and attainment but have reservations about the top down approach in change management and poor resourcing. They demand well-resourced institutions and teachers, capacity building for implementers in the institutions and their inclusion in the process of the reform planning. They suggest improved communication and coordination for effective implementation of the reform along with comprehensive, inclusive, consistent and research based approach in the policymaking, planning and implementation strategy of the reform, which needs to be incremental in nature. Based on the data, especially the suggestions of the participants, an emergent model for educational change management in Pakistan has been outlined with strategic management at the core built around incremental, consistent, research based, inclusive and comprehensive, approaches. This model extends into the role of teachers: who are resourced with information, guidance, support, materials, facilities and funds, who are satisfied with the change management process and their professional status in the system and working conditions, and who are ready for the change through acceptance of the change (especially with reference to its effect on student learning), participation in the whole change process and training. This emergent model has been situated in the existing research literature to highlight the similarities as well as the distinctive features of the Pakistani context.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Educational change, change management and leadership, Pakistani education
Subjects: L Education > LG Individual institutions (Asia. Africa)
L Education > LB Theory and practice of education > LB1603 Secondary Education. High schools
Colleges/Schools: College of Social Sciences > School of Education
Supervisor's Name: Forde, Prof. Christine
Date of Award: 2012
Depositing User: Mrs Jamila Razzaq
Unique ID: glathesis:2012-3216
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 28 Feb 2012
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2012 14:05
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/3216

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