Private antitrust law enforcement in cases with international elements

Balde, Alen (2016) Private antitrust law enforcement in cases with international elements. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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The Supreme Court of the United States consented in its Empagran decision that the foreign antitrust injury that is in a dependency relationship with anticompetitive effects (antitrust injury) in the U.S. is to be litigated before the U.S. courts.

Since this decision antitrust law litigation in an international context does not depend merely on anticompetitive effects in the U.S., but also on the relationship between anticompetitive effect and (foreign) private antitrust injury. This is something that was not present in pre-Empagran cases. The Supreme Court did not provide conditions on the basis of which the relationship between anticompetitive effects and private antitrust injury could be classified as one of dependency. This means that the Supreme Court left the determination of these conditions to lower U.S. courts.

The lower U.S. courts, instead of attempting to determine these conditions, have made foreign private antitrust injury even more difficult to litigate before the U.S. courts. There are three factors that contributed to this development in U.S. case law: the understanding of the Empagran litigation; the understanding of the nature of the international context, and U.S. courts taking a pro-active role in delivering their decisions for which the reasoning is difficult to understand. The greatest obstacle that post-Empagran U.S. courts have placed in front of private antitrust litigants is the requirement that instead of ‘dependency connection’ there should be ‘direct causation’ between anticompetitive effects in the U.S. and litigated (foreign) private antitrust injury.

This thesis considers the existing theoretical and practical problems of the current analytical framework under which antitrust violation is analysed in an international context. The thesis introduces the new legal concept of a ‘transborder standard’. This is necessitated by the starting position of this thesis that a factual situation under adjudication cannot be only either ‘domestic’ or ‘foreign’, but can also be ‘transborder’. The introduction of the transborder standard to the existing theoretical framework enables (and requires) the analysis of the factual situation under adjudication in its integrity, bearing in mind also the purpose of private antitrust law enforcement and the right of private parties to be compensated for suffered antitrust injury.

The transborder standard provides a framework to analyse antitrust claims brought before the U.S. courts by those private parties who satisfy their private antitrust injury outside the U.S. At the same time, the transborder standard does not enable private litigants to take advantage of simultaneous antitrust litigation before U.S. courts and the courts of non-U.S. countries.

‘Transborder standard’ is a new legal concept. Nevertheless, the existing system of U.S. antitrust law enforcement does support it and, consequently, the transborder standard can be directly applied.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Empagran Case, post-Empagran case law, the U.S. Supreme Court, private antitrust law enforcement, antitrust litigation, antitrust enforcement, subject matter jurisdiction, comity, arbitrage, alternative theory, antitrust law, transborder standard, transnational litigation, antitrust damages, antitrust injury, foreign antitrust injury, antitrust standing, antitrust causation, FTAIA, anticompetitive effects, international competition, deterrence, parallel antitrust litigation, pro-active role of U.S. courts, international private antitrust law enforcement, inextricability, hub, scheme
Subjects: J Political Science > JX International law
J Political Science > JZ International relations
K Law > K Law (General)
K Law > KF United States Federal Law
Colleges/Schools: College of Social Sciences > School of Law
Supervisor's Name: Greaves, Prof. Rosa
Date of Award: 2016
Depositing User: Mr. Alen Balde
Unique ID: glathesis:2016-7060
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2016 16:15
Last Modified: 19 Feb 2019 11:31

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