On-detector electronics for high speed data transport, control and power distribution for the LHCb VELO and ATLAS Pixel Upgrades

Naik, Sneha A. (2020) On-detector electronics for high speed data transport, control and power distribution for the LHCb VELO and ATLAS Pixel Upgrades. MSc(R) thesis, University of Glasgow.

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The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will see an upgrade to higher luminosity to widen the scope of study of particle physics and this will be a major upgrade of the LHC. The LHC collides protons at an energy of 13 TeV in order to study the fundamental components of matter and the forces that bind them together. The High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will enter service after 2025, increasing the volume of the data for analysis by a factor of 10. The phenomena that physicists are looking for have a very low probability of occurring and this is why a very large amount of data is needed to detect them. Vertexing and tracking sub-detectors for these High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments deliver very high data rates that require multi-gigabit transmission links. Commercial solutions such as optical transmission or wire cabling are investigated, however, due to high radiation environments and low radiation length requirements, electrical transmission with low mass custom designs have to be considered. Designing transmission lines with this requirement does pose a challenge and optical data transmission is used when space and radiation limits allow. The increase in luminosity will produce more data making it possible to study the phenomena in more detail by increasing the number of collisions by a factor of between five and seven. The increase in data will require an enhanced readout system and related electronics to be able to transmit and read out the data for further processing. At the same time powering systems need to be looked at to understand cost effcient and reliable techniques to be able to power such electronics. The thesis focuses on the readout electronics of the LHCb Vertex Locator (known as the 'VELO') Upgrade and the ATLAS Inner Tracker (known as the 'ITk') Upgrade including design of some components of the sub-systems, testing for high-speed data signaling, powering schemes and analysis of PCB designs and scope for improvements.
An introduction to the LHC and the four experiments that use its beam - ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb is outlined. The thesis work is focused on two of these detectors namely ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) and these are further explained and details of the sub-systems that make up these detectors are elaborated. Major differences to the upgrade of the experiments is explained highlighting the changes and the main challenges that would need to be addressed.
The work on the On-detector electronics of the LHCb VELO Upgrade with details of the design requirements and implementations for the different components is described and test results are presented. Data tapes for carrying high speed data signals and control signals from the front-end chip to the Vacuum Feedthoough (VF) were designed and successfully tested to have a loss of < 10 dB at the Nyquist frequency of 2.5 GHz and a characteristic impedance of approximately 94 Ω which is within the 10% tolerance of 100 Ω for differential signals. Sensitivity to radiation damage as well as additional mass in the detector acceptance were some factors that motivated the design of the Opto Power board (OPB). In addition, there was a need to power the front-end ASICs but from outside the vacuum tank. The OPB was designed to meet these requirements in addition to be more easily accessible for repair and maintenance. The OPB is realised in an 8-layer stackup, with custom designed radiation hard ICs, and was designed for optical to electrical conversion of 20 high-speed data links at 5.12 Gb/s per link to be read by the Off-detector electronics. The board comprises 13 DC-DC converters for powering 12 ASICs, two front-end hybrids and the OPB itself with a total current supply of 26 A.
The ATLAS experiment will implement the Inner Tracker (ITk) which is a new tracker to be installed during the major ATLAS Upgrade during Long Shutdown 3. The work on the ATLAS ITK addresses two topics; a novel pixel powering scheme adopting layout techniques for high-speed design. A serial powering scheme was evaluated to be an optimal option and this scheme was tested to understand its scope and implementation in the pixel endcap design and results are presented. A study to understand the existing Crescent Tape PCB layout and techniques to improve the design for high-speed data transmission was evaluated.
Methods for analysing high-speed data using S-parameters and eye diagrams, sources of signal degradation and mitigation techniques, are detailed. The laboratory test setup for high-speed measurements with the equipments used is also explained.

Item Type: Thesis (MSc(R))
Qualification Level: Masters
Keywords: Electronics, high speed design, printed circuit boards, pcb, schematic, signal integrity, powering scheme, s-parameters, layer stackup of pcb, crosstalk, vias, pcb material, CTLE, continuous time linear equalisation, silicon detector, high energy physics.
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Colleges/Schools: College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Supervisor's Name: Eklund, Prof. Lars
Date of Award: 2020
Depositing User: Mrs. Sneha A. Naik
Unique ID: glathesis:2020-81585
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2020 08:27
Last Modified: 14 Sep 2022 09:14
Thesis DOI: 10.5525/gla.thesis.81585
URI: http://theses.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/81585

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