Independent men: radical manhood during the English Revolution

Jacobs, Emma Katherine Mary (2017) Independent men: radical manhood during the English Revolution. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

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This thesis is a study of radical manhood during the English Revolution. It examines different forms of radicalism, including that of soldiers, Levellers, Diggers, Quakers, and Ranters. By examining a plurality of radical sectaries, it acknowledges that, just as there was no one way to be a man in the seventeenth-century, there was no one way to be a radical man. Studying a variety of groups has the added benefit of allowing the thesis to explore radicalism across the period, including the Army Revolt of 1647-49 and Leveller activism in the mid-1640s, through to the spread of the Quaker Movement during the Interregnum. This enables the study of different types of radicalism; from the more formalist radicals who had a defined programme for change, such as the Levellers and the Diggers, to the more individualistic, ecstatic ministries of the Ranters and the Quakers.

The thesis makes the case that all of the radical manhoods under discussion are varying forms of alternative manhood, which existed outside of, or in tension with, patriarchal manhood. These manhoods are designated alternative manhoods because they either did not relate to, or had a complicated relationship with, the household. Typical studies of manhood during the early modern period have focused on household patriarchy as the centre of male power and male identity formation; conversely, this thesis discusses alternative manhoods that were not centred on the household. The thesis’s central argument is that independence was a defining feature of manly identities. It has already been demonstrated by historians of manhood that economic independence was an important feature of early modern patriarchal manhood. This thesis argues that, in cases where economic independence was unattainable, independence remained a desirable state. Independence did not have to be economic independence, it could imply agency over actions, or the absence of a relationship of dependence on clerical authorities. Further, the focus on independence allows the thesis to study manhood in areas outside the household, such as politics, the army, and the church. Overall, discussing manhood from the perspective of independence makes it possible to discuss alternative ways that men could achieve full manhood that were unrelated to domestic patriarchy.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Manhood, masculinity, gender, English Civil War, English Revolution, interregnum, radicalism, radical religion, New Model Army, Levellers, Diggers, Quakers, Ranters.
Subjects: D History General and Old World > D History (General)
D History General and Old World > D History (General) > D204 Modern History
D History General and Old World > DA Great Britain
Colleges/Schools: College of Arts > School of Humanities > History
Funder's Name: Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC)
Supervisor's Name: Shepard, Professor Alexandra and Spaeth, Dr. Donald
Date of Award: 2017
Embargo Date: 23 May 2021
Depositing User: Dr Emma Katherine Mary Jacobs
Unique ID: glathesis:2017-9111
Copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author.
Date Deposited: 23 May 2018 14:03
Last Modified: 26 May 2020 08:39

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